Rapid Changes to Earth’s Surface-earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes
Why don’t Evolutionists factor into their calculations the rapid and frequent catastrophic events well known to have occurred throughout the earth’s history?
Because the dates derived thereby refute their belief system. That’s a quote.
The Problem: By the mid 19th century it was obvious that Earth was much older than 6000 years,
Obvious? On what dating system? It was not obvious.
It was asserted out of an anti-religious idea rejecting moral authority. As the article itself admits, the idea of an old Earth came first, followed by efforts to prove it.
After all, if the Earth were too young for there to have been time for evolution, the evolution debate would be over.
Early attempts: Initially, three lines of evidence were pursued [and failed.]
- Hutton attempted to estimate age based on the application of observed rates of sedimentation to the known thickness of the sedimentary rock column, achieving an approximation of 36 million years. This invoked three assumptions [all constructed to support evolution]:
- Constant rates of sedimentation over time
- Thickness of newly deposited sediments similar to that of resulting sedimentary rocks
- There are no gaps or missing intervals in the rock record.
In fact, each of these is a source of concern. The big problem is with the last assumption. The rock record preserves erosional surfaces that record intervals in which not only is deposition of sediment not occurring, but sediment that was already there (who knows how much) was removed.
- Ocean salinity: In 1889 John Joly, acting on suggestion of Edmund Halley, attempted estimate based on the salinity of the ocean. He calculated the amount of salt [currently] being transported into the oceans by rivers and compared this to the salinity of sea water [assuming it was initially fresh water], obtaining an age of 90 million years.
- Thermodynamics: Sir William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, during the late 19th century, assumed that the Earth had originally been molten then, using averge melting point of rocks and the laws of thermodynamics, determined that the Earth would completely solidify within 20 million years.
Both uniformitarians and evolutionists were uncomfortable…
As it developed, both Joly and Tomson were leaving vital (but unknown) information out of their equations.
- Joly missed that salt is removed from the oceans by various processes.
- Kelvin could not have know that new heat is generated inside the Earth by radioactive decay (nuclear fission), because the process had not been discovered.
But that doesn’t stop Evolutionists from using inaccurate estimates based on known false assumptions.
This diagram shows a selection of rock layers, or stratigraphic columns, from the Koobi Fora geologic formation on the eastern shore of Lake Turkana in Kenya.
This area is a ridge of sedimentary rock where researchers have found more than 10,000 fossils, both human and other hominins, since 1968. These fossils aid the scientific investigation of human evolution.
All lakes, rivers, and streams carry sediment such as soil, sand, and volcanic matter…This process…slowly added layers…Over time the sediment solidified into rock. Bones of ancient humans, our hominin ancestors, and other animal species were buried in the sediment, and eventually became fossilized and preserved in the rocks.
Lake Turkana has a geologic history that favored the preservation of fossils…
Lorenyang Lake, a body of water formed during the Pleistocene (1.9 mya), was much longer-lasting than any other lake in the Turkana basin. Lorenyang Lake existed for about 400,000 years. Fossils of the Lorenyang Lake period are varied and rich, from hominins such as Homo habilis to organisms Homo habilis may have eaten: fish and shellfish, plants, and birds.
National Geographic is clearly a proponent of Uniformitarianism with its explanation of
- over time,
- the “Law” actually “Assumption” of superposition.
But as detailed above, only catastrophes create the circumstances required to transform organic materials to fossilized stone. The reason is obvious – organic material quickly decomposes when exposed to the elements.
Even more importantly, sedimentary rock does not contain the only element used in a radiometric dating method. Only igneous rocks from volcanoes contain potassium.
So how can National Geographic be saying…? Can National Geographic’s report be trusted?
The area has also been dominated by different landscapes over the span of Turkana’s history—flood plains…an active volcano…
fossils unearthed in the Tulu Bor flood plain, which blanked the basin near Mount Kulal, are embedded in tuff, or hardened volcanic ash.
OK. So at this location anyway there is the potential for dating with K-A, but that has been shown to be unreliable.
And that doesn’t account for the majority of fossils found in this region.
in southern Africa, hominid fossils are almost always found in caves like Rising Star. Here, there are no convenient volcanic layers. Instead, the bones are typically embedded within breccia—a concrete-like mixture of gravel, sand, and other junk that accumulated in the floor of the cave. These blocks might still be surrounded by informative layers called flowstones—sheets of calcite formed when water drips down the walls and floors of a cave. The water carries soluble uranium, which remains in the flowstone and decays over time into thorium and lead. Again, the levels of these elements reveal the age of the layer…
Strike that for the same reason as the K-A unreliability – assuming uniformity of levels of atmospheric and geological elements which is known not to be the case, especially over the millions of years required for the conceptual process of evolution.
Instead, volcanic activity is always catastrophic.
The Rift Valley of eastern Africa and Asia (sometimes called the Great Rift Valley [GRV] or East African Rift system [EAR or EARS]) is an enormous geological split in the crust of the earth, thousands of kilometers long, up to 125 miles (200 kilometers) wide, and between a few hundred to thousands of meters deep…and visible from space.
How many volcanoes are in the East African Rift Valley?
More than 100 young volcanoes – that have had activity within about 10,000 years…
So nothing in the Great Rift Valley can be honestly claimed to have lain in position for millions of years.
Geologists know that the Rift Valley was formed by violent subterranean forces that tore apart the earth’s crust.
How fast is Africa splitting apart?
The Arabian plate is moving away from Africa at a rate of about 1 inch per year, while the two African plates are separating…between half an inch to 0.2 inches per year…
Despite this area of the world providing unequivocal evidence of catastrophism with tectonic forces capable of heaving the Himalayan Mountains skyward, the Evolutionists who flock to this area for fossils use the Uniformitarianism paradigm – applying the rate of today’s processes to the past – so they can shore up Evolution’s need for long periods of time for its biological processes.
The rapid uplift of these resistant rocks creates a high range…often exhibits large folds in which the rocks appear to have flowed instead of having been bent. Folds of this sort have formed at depths where the rocks were hot and soft before they reached the relatively cold surface of the Earth.
Evolution’s arbitrary designation of dating procedures to conform to its uniformitarianism belief system proves that, far more than any Creationist religion, it is based strictly on belief against the evidence.
National Geographic’s educational material is nothing but indoctrinational.
[S]cientists at Britain’s University of Bristol developed a lab-based process using 1) clay, 2) pressure and 3) heat in which fresh specimens can be converted into “synthetic” fossils within approximately one day.
Volcanic activity is the source for making “natural” fossils in a short period of time.
[T]he fossil beds of northern China are famous—both for their exceptional preservation and for their incredible diversity…
Now researchers say they were likely killed by a series of volcanic eruptions…The ash entombed and preserved them, much like the doomed victims of Pompeii. (See also “Pompeiians Flash-Heated to Death—No Time to Suffocate.”)…
The fossils at Pompeii were formed as the cast type, in which the only the three dimensional shape is preserved. The rock quickly hardens around the body which quickly desiccates “ashes to ashes, dust to dust”. The fossils beds of northern China include the bodily form created by the additional factor of 4) water transportation which replaces decaying organic matter with minerals.
Exactly like petrified wood.
The Petrified Forest National Park
Why is this location special? Mostly because of extremely favorable conditions that allowed to preserve the wood…Huge trees – up to 200 feet tall and 9 feet in diameter…
The area was also volcanically active,..
Floods or eruptions, as opposed to minor regular events such as normal accumulation of sediment over time, allow wood and specimens to get covered rapidly without oxygen. This swift burial protected some of the freshly fallen trees from major damage by oxygen and insects. The dissolved ash was replacing [the organic material] with silica. Other minerals, iron, and manganese were also mixed in, which gave the resulting rock a palette of colors…
petrified wood is not rare. It is found in many fossil beds, in volcanic deposits, sedimentary rocks, and various other formations. At times, it can be exposed after severe storms washing now underwater forests ashore. It can be exposed during digs that clear off ancient volcanic ash and mud…
How long can a dead body remain soaking in water to “slowly” replace organic matter with minerals?
Bodies have been retrieved almost completely intact from waters below 7°C after several weeks, and as recognisable skeletons after five years.
In tropical waters such as the Arabian sea, it’s a different story…Putrefaction and scavenging creatures will dismember the corpse in a week or two and the bones will sink to the seabed. There they may be slowly buried by marine silt or broken down further over months or years, depending on the acidity of the water.
This disproves the evolutionary claim that “millions of years” passes to form fossils. Not only is it not a requirement, it can’t even be a possibility.
The evidence is that fossils were formed rapidly through a world-wide process including
- volcanic activity providing heat and mineral-rich ash,
- tectonic activity accompanying the volcanic activity providing pressure, and
- massive amounts of water providing both pressure and injection of mineral
The reality is that even National Geographic frankly states that all dating methods are highly unreliable. “Ask an archaeologist how old the site they’re excavating is, and they may not have an answer.”
See a rare baby dinosaur curled up in its fossilised egg. One of the most complete dino embryos ever found shows the ancient infant tucked into a position that’s strikingly similar to today’s unhatched chickens
the infant dino comes from rocks estimated to be roughly 70 million years old, though its precise age remains uncertain.
That estimated yet confident date OF THE ROCK places it prior to the advent of birds within the Evolutionary schema. This is circular reasoning.
“All birds directly evolved from a group of two-legged dinosaurs known as theropods.
The embryo is a type of oviraptorosaur—a group of beaked therapod dinosaurs closely related to modern birds that lived about 130 million to 66 million years ago. These creatures share many traits with their avian relatives, and the embryo hints at one more: a curled pre-hatching position.
“The evidence that birds are living theropod dinosaurs is, at this point, overwhelming.”
I’m finding the evidence underwhelming.
The fossil is also strikingly similar to today’s unhatched lizards. There’s just not much room in the egg to move around, is there?