Land is the source of the Wealth of Nations.
In Economics, the word ‘land’…stands for all nature, living and lifeless. It includes all natural resources that we can get free from air, water and land…
It includes oceans, lakes and rivers, mineral deposits, rainfall, water-power, fisheries, forests and numerous other things which nature provides and man uses. The term ‘land’ thus embraces all that nature has created on the earth, above the earth, and below the earth’s surface. Dr. Marshall has therefore defined land thus: “By land is meant not merely land in the strict sense of the word, but whole of the materials and forces which nature gives freely for man’s aid in land, water, in air and light and heat.”
Importance of Land:
Land as a factor of production is of immense importance. As has already been pointed out, everything that we use can be traced ultimately to land. Land may be rightly called the original source of all material wealth. The economic prosperity of a country is closely linked with the richness of her natural resources.
Despite its renown as the first great work in political economy, The Wealth of Nations is in fact a continuation of the philosophical theme begun in The Theory of Moral Sentiments. The ultimate problem to which Smith addresses himself is how the inner struggle between the passions and the “impartial spectator”—explicated in Moral Sentiments in terms of the single individual—works its effects in the larger arena of history itself…in the long-run evolution of society…
Under the Mosaic law, redemption served the purpose of restoring possession of the land to the original owner.
“in all the land of your possession ye shall grant a redemption for the land.
- If thy brother be waxen poor, and hath sold away some of his possession, and if any of his kin come to redeem it, then shall he redeem that which his brother sold.
- And if the man have none to redeem it, and himself be able to redeem it; Then let him count the years of the sale thereof, and restore the overplus unto the man to whom he sold it; that he may return unto his possession” (Leviticus 25:24-27)
In the case where the land owner died without leaving any heirs to keep the land in the family in perpetuity, it was the duty of the redeemer to become a surrogate father with the widow. Their son who would take the name of, i.e. be posthumously adopted by, the deceased in order to continue the family of the deceased original owner.
“If brethren dwell together, and one of them die, and have no child, the wife of the dead shall not marry without unto a stranger: her husband’s brother [close relative] shall go in unto her, and take her to him to wife, and…the firstborn which she beareth shall succeed in the name of his brother which is dead, that his name be not put out of Israel.” (Deuteronomy 25:5-6)
Even today, societies with strong clan membership ties, such as the Batak in Indonesia, practice the levirate – widows marrying brothers or cousins of their deceased spouse to keep the most valued of possessions – land – in the family.
It is so important to understand all that redemption entails that an entire book in the Bible is devoted to explaining this.
“Then went Boaz up to the gate, and sat him down there; and, behold, the kinsman came by…And he said unto the kinsman, Naomi, that is come again out of the country of Moab , selleth a parcel of land, which was our brother Elimelech’s…If thou wilt redeem it, redeem it: but if thou wilt not redeem it, then tell me…I am after thee. And he said, I will redeem it.” (Ruth 4:1-4)
“Then said Boaz, What day thou buyest the field of the hand of Naomi, thou must buy it also of Ruth the Moabitess, the wife of the dead, to raise up the name of the dead upon his inheritance. And the kinsman said, I cannot redeem it for myself, lest I mar mine own inheritance: redeem thou thy right to thyself…Buy it for thee.
In ancient times, upwards of 50% of infants did not survive the first year of life, and Israel at that time was in deathly circumstances of famine and terrorist attacks from neighboring nations – which increased mortality in all ages from all causes of death. It was a dangerous time and place to raise a family.
So when Elimelech’s nearest kinsman, who either was ignorant of the law or planning to ignore it, was publicly informed by Boaz that he would be held to the conditions of this law to give up his first-born son by Ruth as Elimelech’s heir, he rescinded his offer.
Now this was the manner in former time in Israel concerning redeeming and concerning changing, for to confirm all things; a man plucked off his shoe, and gave it to his neighbour: and this was a testimony in Israel. So he drew off his shoe.
You can see this footprint would be as effective an identification as a fingerprint.
And Boaz said unto the elders, and unto all the people, Ye are witnesses this day, that I have bought all that was Elimelech’s…Moreover / including Ruth the Moabitess…have I purchased to be my wife, to raise up the name of the dead upon his inheritance, that the name of the dead be not cut off…” (Ruth 4:5-10)
Can we not see that this Mosaic law is based on Adam’s redemption of his wife?
Adam redeemed his wife from being permanently cut off from the land of the living when he gave up his immortality, and joined himself to her in her mortal condition. Through their conjoined mortal state they empowered each other to have offspring, and perpetuated themselves until the end of time when dominion over the whole earth is restored to humanity – as decreed by Almighty God. I don’t know about you but I get goosebumps over how this prosaic social law reveals the mystery of the ages.
Can we not see that this tangible practice establishes the basis for understanding and accepting the ephemeral concept of redemption from sin’s destructive force of death by the Seed of the Woman? The laws – immutable consequences of action A resulting in reaction A – hold as true in the hyper dimensional state of being as they do in our familiar four dimensions.
“And for this cause he is the mediator of the new testament that by means of death, for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first testament they which are called might receive the promise of eternal inheritance. ” (Hebrews 9:12-15)
“And I saw in the right hand of him that sat on the throne a book written within and on the backside, sealed with seven seals. And I saw a strong angel proclaiming with a loud voice, Who is worthy to open the book, and to loose the seals thereof… behold, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David…And he came and took the book out of the right hand of him that sat upon the throne. And when he had taken the book, the four beasts and four and twenty elders fell down before the Lamb, having every one of them harps, and golden vials full of odours, which are the prayers of saints. And they sung a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation;” (Revelation 5:1-9)
An example showing that the need for redemption was carried forward in the conscience of all humans is found in the death sentence imposed by virtually all cultures throughout time.
The death of family members had a profound psychological effect upon the Iroquois…Essentially, they felt that they needed restitution in some form or another for the dead relative...The first was for a warrior to bring back the scalp of an Indian from the killer’s tribe and to present it to the grieving person…The other two options involved a live captive: the Iroquois either vengefully tortured the prisoner to death or adopted him or her into the tribe.