A maximum length of half the diameter of a globe applies only to a linear mountain range.
A subduction zone could be the whole planet’s circumference for soft plates [of] a torus-shaped planet with a small inner diameter in the limit of size.
A torus is a ball with an indented center.
Antarctica is portrayed on globes as an “everted” shape. Think of it like an outie belly button. But just as with belly buttons, the same shape could be “inverted.”
The possibility and characteristics of a toroidal planet is debated by people much smarter than me. I simply point out that we shouldn’t be so sure the masses are being informed of know all there is to know.
A planet in the shape of a donut, or toroid, as it’s called in mathematics, could technically exist, Planets are round balls because gravity pulls inward.
But the theory of gravity has never been proven! A toroidal model provides alternate explanations for why we don’t fly off into space.
A spinning circle, produces both centripetal force at the center pulling objects toward the center, and also an equal outward for – centrifugal force.
In the Arctic…geopolitical confrontations loom on the horizon reminiscent of a bygone Cold War era… the United States, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, Denmark, Russia, and now China at the earth’s northern pole has led to a steady escalation of force…According to several historians, “World War II was waged partly in the Arctic…World War III, it was long assumed, would be…”
While most histories of the Cold War’s polar dimensions focus on Arctic developments, this article illustrates the concomitant and symbiotic relationship of American Antarctic expeditions that, it was hoped, would enhance American polar capabilities in the advent of war with the USSR…
There, strategic rivals increasingly assert territorial claims…
An aerial shortcut from north to south would certainly be an advantage in World War, and certainly Nazis are known to have believed in a hollow earth.
There was at least one expedition by the Nazi military to exploit that belief for strategic advantage during the war.
There are several hollow Earth theories. The most prevalent one holds that there are great but hidden openings at both the North and South poles and that it is possible to enter those holes. Some — including the respected Admiral Byrd — claimed to have entered those holes.
Hitler‘s Nazis were convinced that they were destined to rule the world, and they came to this warped conclusion through the acceptance of many occult beliefs and practices, including astrology, the prophecies of Nostradamus, and the hollow/inverted Earth theory… hohlweltlehre…
Lest we forget, Hitler’s Nazis also claimed that they received their knowledge of rocket science from occult / hidden persons, and they did far surpass anything being done by the rival Great Powers. Just a thought.
Then there’s the legend that Hitler and many of his Nazi minions escaped Germany in the closing days of World War II and fled to Antarctica where at the South Pole they had discovered an entrance to the Earth’s interior. According to the Hollow Earth Research Society in Ontario, Canada, they are still there. After the war, the organization claims, the Allies discovered that more than 2,000 scientists from Germany and Italy had vanished, along with almost a million people, to the land beyond the South Pole.
This story gets more complicated with Nazi-designed UFOs, Nazi collaboration with the people who live in the center of the Earth, and the explanation for “Aryan-looking” UFO pilots.
In ancient times, the concept of a subterranean land inside the Earth appeared in mythology, folklore and legends…such as the Greek underworld, the Nordic Svartálfaheimr, the Christian Hell, and the Jewish Sheol…also mentioned in Tibetan Buddhist belief…
According to the Ancient Greeks, there were caverns under the surface which were entrances leading to the underworld… In Thracian and Dacian legends, it is said that there are caverns occupied by an ancient god called Zalmoxis. In Mesopotamian religion there is a story of a man who, after traveling through the darkness of a tunnel in the mountain of “Mashu”, entered a subterranean garden.
In Celtic mythology there is a legend of a cave called “Cruachan“, also known as “Ireland’s gate to Hell”, a mythical and ancient cave from which according to legend strange creatures would emerge and be seen on the surface of the Earth…In County Down, Northern Ireland there is a myth which says tunnels lead to the land of the subterranean Tuatha Dé Danann, a group of people who are believed to have introduced Druidism to Ireland, and then went back underground.
In Hindu mythology, the underworld is referred to as Patala. In the Bengali version of the Hindu epic Ramayana, it has been depicted how Rama and Lakshmana were taken by the king of the underworld Ahiravan, brother of the demon king Ravana. Later on they were rescued by Hanuman. The Angami Naga tribes of India claim that their ancestors emerged in ancient times from a subterranean land inside the Earth. The Taino from Cuba believe their ancestors emerged in ancient times from two caves in a mountain underground.
Natives of the Trobriand Islands believe that their ancestors had come from a subterranean land through a cavern hole called “Obukula”. Mexican folklore also tells of a cave in a mountain five miles south of Ojinaga, and that Mexico is possessed by devilish creatures who came from inside the Earth.
In the middle ages, an ancient German myth held that some mountains located between Eisenach and Gotha hold a portal to the inner Earth. A Russian legend says the Samoyeds, an ancient Siberian tribe, traveled to a cavern city to live inside the Earth. The Italian writer Dante describes a hollow earth in his well-known 14th-century work Inferno, in which the fall of Lucifer from heaven caused an enormous funnel to appear in a previously solid and spherical earth, as well as an enormous mountain opposite it, “Purgatory”.
In Native American mythology, it is said that the ancestors of the Mandan people in ancient times emerged from a subterranean land through a cave at the north side of the Missouri River. There is also a tale about a tunnel in the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation in Arizona near Cedar Creek which is said to lead inside the Earth to a land inhabited by a mysterious tribe. It is also the belief of the tribes of the Iroquois that their ancient ancestors emerged from a subterranean world inside the Earth. The elders of the Hopi people believe that a Sipapu entrance in the Grand Canyon exists which leads to the underworld.
Brazilian Indians, who live alongside the Parima River in Brazil, claim that their forefathers emerged in ancient times from an underground land, and that many of their ancestors still remained inside the Earth. Ancestors of the Inca supposedly came from caves which are located east of Cuzco, Peru.
The consistency of world-wide accounts over time and cultures provides overwhelming amount of confirmatory evidence for a basis of reality in the accounts.
The word abyssal describing the bottom of the ocean comes from the Greek ἄβυσσον (abysson). It means “anything too deep to be measured” and “the abode of devils.”
This Greek word is used three times in the Bible where it is translated as deep, contrasting with heaven which is high.
“Canst thou by searching find out God? canst thou find out the Almighty unto perfection? It [searching] is as high as heaven; what canst thou do? deeper than hell / Sheol; what canst thou know [find out about perfection, completeness, the Theory of Everything, the Singularity]?” (Job 11:7-8)
The Greek New Testament’s references to the abyss are based on the 66 citations of the Hebrew word Sheol, and confirm that, logically, this farthest place from heaven is where dead souls are imprisoned, reserved for the day of judgment.
“Who shall ascend into heaven? (that is, to bring Christ down from above:) Or, Who shall descend into the deep? (that is, to bring up Christ again from the dead.)” (Romans 10:6-7)
The Bible’s version of the abyss, like the other religious books, is declared to be a place of torment – darkness, extreme pressure and heat, no bottoming out to a feeling of stability.
“What have I to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of God most high? I beseech thee, torment me not. And they besought him that he would not command them to go out into the deep.” (Luke 8:28-31)
I saw an angel come down from heaven, having the key of the bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand. And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thousand years, And cast him into the bottomless pit” (Revelation 20:1-3)
In the toroidal earth model, the hollow place of the earth is the center hole of the donut, open to space as on the outer surface of the donut. However, on the earth’s outer surface there is living space up to the height of the Van Allen belts, while in the center of the earth’s donut the donut-shaped Van Allen belts meet for form a continuous circuit, creating a chaotic maelstrom of pure energy, meeting the description of hell.
- This actually accounts for the much smaller square mileage of the northern arctic region compared to the southern.
The Arctic…is 14.5 million square km (5.5 million square miles)—almost exactly the same size as Antarctica – and has been inhabited by humans for close to 20,000 years. It consists of the Arctic Ocean and surrounding land, including all of Greenland and Spitsbergen, and the northern parts of Alaska, Canada, Norway, and Russia.
Ummm, that’s not an accurate comparison of North and South Polar regions. The North is delimited by land, establishing set bounds, while the South is surrounded by ocean, allowing its measure to be expanded or shrunk to suit one’s perspective. Reprising the quote above:
There are several ways to judge the size of Antarctica. The present land mass of ice and rock extends over about 14 million square kilometres (5.5 million square miles), but every winter the solid surface area of Antarctica roughly doubles to 28 million square kilometers (11 million square miles).
When we include the total area of the surrounding Southern Ocean, whether temporarily frozen or remaining liquid year-round, we add 24 million square miles to the 5 million square miles of continental for a total of about 30 million square miles of Southern Polar region.
That centrifugal force would make gravity the weakest at the equator (which, by the way, it is on Earth). Gravity would be strongest just inward from the poles. It would make for harsh weather. We’re talking intense winds, zoned climates with massive temperature differences, and small, super-strong storm systems.
That is exactly describing the earth’s climate zones, hurricanes and typhoons.
This interior curve of a donut hole would match the contours of the exterior of the donut. The solar radiation of the encircling Van Allen Belts would provide the solar light, heat, and protection to this inner region exactly as it does to the outer region.
On a toroid earth, the outer bulge is the equator covered by the continents, while the inner edge is covered by both the north and south poles. This is consistent the amount of surface area covered by the Antarctic’s 1/7 of the total surface area of the earth, a circular diameter interfacing with multiple plates extending along the total length of its mountainous coverage, and the location of earth’s magnetic fields.
Most of all, the toroidal configuration of the Van Allen belts fits over a toroidal earth and completes an electrical circuit. The inner Van Allen belt consists largely of highly energetic protons, with energy exceeding 30,000,000 electron volts. On a globe, where is all that energy going once it hits the polar regions?
A toroid shape explains the hollow earth theory, which holds that the polar regions are holes 1400 miles across, with edges that curve smoothly from the outside around to the inside. Traveling over the edge into the interior would be experienced exactly as traveling over the exterior surface of the toroid, with no awareness of curvature due to the gigantic proportions. Does anyone on the ocean experience curvature? The North and South Poles are identified by their magnetic fields while the mountainous Antarctic would block passage between the southern and northern regions, requiring a traveler to return by the same way he arrived, arriving at the conclusion that the north and south were “poles apart” instead of next door neighbors.
In February 1947 Admiral Byrd abruptly closed down the mammoth Antarctica investigation and flew to the North Pole. Surely this is indicative of a connection between the poles? (Pun) Before he embarked on his North Pole flight he said, “I’d like to see that land beyond the Pole. That area beyond the Pole is the center of the great unknown.” Surely he means “the South Pole” when he references “the Pole”, since that is the one he just explored.
During his Arctic flight of 1,700 miles BEYOND the North Pole he reported by radio that he saw below him, not ice and snow, but land areas consisting of mountains, forests, green vegetation, lakes and rivers, and in the underbrush saw a strange animal resembling the mammoth….”
In January, 1956, Admiral Byrd led another expedition to the Antarctic…The radio announcement at this time (January 13, 1956) said: “On January 13, members of the United stated expedition penetrated a land extent of 2,300 miles BEYOND the Pole… “The present expedition has opened up a vast new land.”
From an article published in November 2021
The Cold, Cold War: Rear Admiral Richard Byrd, Antarctic Expeditions, and the Evolution of America’s Strategic Interest in the Polar Regions
An option to the toroid hollow earth model is the inverse toroid. This places the South Pole along the upper rim as the same diameter of the earth as the equator, and the North Pole at the center elevation, reachable from the South Pole via an aerial shortcut once you get past the Antarctic mountains, that is..
In 1893, Orlando Ferguson, a real estate developer based in South Dakota, drew a map of the Earth that combined biblical and scientific knowledge in a unique way…
If you were to take a donut and press it into wet cement and then remove the donut, Bingham explained, the rounded impression it left in the cement would be what is known in mathematics as an inverse toroid.
“It’s pretty clever because it explains the Columbus phenomenon, where you see ships coming in over the horizon and gradually the mast gets taller and taller until you can see the ship,” Bingham said.
“at the time people actually believed this stuff!”…
Incredibly, some people still do. The Flat Earth Society is an active organization currently led by a Virginian man named Daniel Shenton. Though Shenton believes in evolution and global warming, he and his hundreds, if not thousands, of followers worldwide also believe that the Earth is a disc that you can fall off of.
This last assertion is indicative of the insults heaped on people who dare to question the current scientific paradigm, whatever it is at the moment, however often scientific theories are disproved and replaced. Bullying belies insecurity and lack of authority, and only reinforces the conviction of free people to stand their ground.
Fear of falling is not an issue with people who question the globe model. It’s the fear of being lied to by a secretive government which always ends in a takeover of the masses at the bottom of the food chain.