13) Evidence For Genus Homo Begins With Species Sapiens

Fossil evidence for the human species begins with the human species.

From The Smithsonian Institute:

From skeletons to teeth, early human fossils have been found of more than 6,000 individuals. With the rapid pace of new discoveries every year, this impressive sample means that even though some early human species are only represented by one or a few fossils, others are represented by thousands of fossils…

While people used to think that there was a single line of human species, with one evolving after the other…we now know this is not the case…

I’m confused. Isn’t the whole concept of evolution based on species evolving into new species?

And what does the Smithsonian mean about “early” human fossils if not “ancestors” of modern humans?

And why is Evolution still being presented – and accepted – as a known single line of species evolving into modern humans?


  1. Homo habilis was proposed to have been a human ancestor, directly evolving into Homo erectus which directly led to modern humans, but since the oldest H. habilis specimen has less ancestral traits than the younger specimens it appears this species assignment is a specious assemblage of different Australopithecus and Homo fossils.
    1. Strike off list.
  2. Homo rudolfensis consisting of one skull and other partial skull aspects with no bodily remains, both its generic classification and validity are debated, with some recommending the species to actually belong to the [non-human] genus Australopithecus.
    1. Strike off.
  3. Homo ergaster should be subsumed into H. erectus according to an ongoing dispute.
    1. Strike off
  4. Homo erectusthe_most_ancient_skeletal_remains_of_man_1
    1. Java Man. Following the eruption of interest in the new idea of Evolution, in the late 19th century a search for themissing linkwas undertaken in Java by a Mssr. Dubois. This was based on the occultic Madam Blavatsky’s revelation of Southeast Asia as the birthplace of humanity and civilization on a continent she called “Lemuria,” since sunken under water. A skullcap, a femur and a tooth unearthed in fairly close proximity were assumed to belong together and, based on the depth of the excavation, to have lain in place there for millions of years ago. This collection was named “Pithecanthropus erectus” (“upright apeman”), AKA “Java Man.”  And beyond these assumptions is the fact that there is no provenance for these fossils – authentication via indisputable record of possession, or chain of custody, like evidence in a homicide trial. Mssr. Dubois paid locals to bring him bones. As with the Gold Rush, competitors kept secret the locations of their finds, and focused on maximizing their payoff rather than scientific accuracy. In any case, rejection of Java man was based on majority adherence to classical Darwinism, which held that humans must have evolved in Africa since chimpanzees and gorillas, humans’ closest relatives, exist only in Africa. Adherents to the Lemuria origin believed that humans were more closely related to the gibbons who lived in Southeast Asia. Somebody please explain to me how any data regarding Java Man is scientific, or at the least, acceptable for a peer-reviewed journal of anthropology today? And yet, “Estimated to be between 700,000 and 1,000,000 years old...it remains the type specimen for Homo erectus.
      1. Strike off list of trustworthy evidence.
    1. Sinanthropus pekinensis” (Peking Man): The first fossil, a tooth, was discovered in 1926, and the Zhoukoudian has since become the most productive H. erectus site in the world. The fossils were classified as a direct human ancestor, Peking Man also played a vital role in therestructuring of the Chinese identity following the Chinese Communist Revolution, and was intensively communicated to introduce Marxism and science (overturning deeply-rooted creation accounts). Similarities between Java Man and Peking Man led to renaming both as Homo erectus in 1950. Throughout much of the 20th century, anthropologists continued to debate the role of Java and Peking Men / H. erectus in human evolution since those fossils were found in Asia and Evolution was believed to occur in Africa. Then in 1949, the species was reported in South Africa…but their species designation has been a tumultuous discussion.
      1. Strike off.
    2. Archaic human fossils unearthed across Europe used to be assigned to H. erectus, but have since been separated as H. heidelbergensis – The first fossil was discovered in 1907 and made the type specimen of a new species primarily because of the mandible’s enormous size — and it was the then-oldest human jaw in the European fossil record at 640,000 years old. However, the use of an isolated jawbone as the type specimen for the species has been problematic as it does not present many diagnostic features. Regardless, by convention – i.e. general agreement in the absence of proof for alternative options – H. heidelbergensis is placed as the most recent common ancestor between modern humans (H. sapiens or H. s. sapiens) and Neanderthals. This is also problematic as the emergence of genetic analysis provided indications that modern human / Neanderthal LCA had existed long before many European specimens typically assigned to H. heidelbergensis did. Accordingly in 2021, Canadian anthropologist Mirjana Roksandic and colleagues classified all European H. heidelbergensis as H. neanderthalensis.
      1. Strike off.
    3. h4hjyxsbeobhkjaxpabrrghalgHomo ergaster lived from 2 million years ago till about 100,000 years ago, possibly even 50,000 years ago. Modern Homo sapiens have only been around for the last 200,000 years. When we do the math we realize that both named species are acknowledged by anthropologists to have lived together for at least 50,000 -100,000 years. I find it hard to believe that H. erectus managed to survive that long against Homo sapiens. Shown is reconstruction of a nearly complete skeleton discovered in Kenya near Lake Turkana. This specimen, called the Turkana Boy, is the most complete early hominin skeleton ever found with 108 out of a full count of 206 bones. 

rhodesian_manH. bodoensis is now supposed to represent the immediate ancestor of modern humans, first described and introduced into the literature in October 2021. It was not based on newly discovered fossils; the aim of the authors of this first description [taxonomic classification] was rather to rearrange known finds. With the help of this reorganization and renaming, according to the authors, all hominin fossils that are interpreted as the early, immediate ancestors of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) are to be grouped under the name Homo bodoensis. but does not include the last common ancestor / LCA of modern humans and Neanderthals. 


Homo neanderthalensis (or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species of their own or a subspecies of archaic homo sapiens who lived in Eurasia until about 40,000 years ago. It is unclear when the line of Neanderthals split from that of modern humans. Neanderthals are known from numerous fossils, especially from after 130,000 years ago. Researchers depicted Neanderthals as primitive, unintelligent, and brutish for much of the early-20th century, but knowledge and perception of them has markedly changed since then in the scientific community.

    1. Neanderthals proliferated harmful gene variants. This does not support the concept of evolution, rather the extinction of this species due to genetic variation refutes evolution.
    2. There is evidence of regional cultures.
    3. Neanderthals had high trauma rates, and about 80% died before the age of 40. This demonstrates the inherently conflict-ridden societies among animals and humans today, also refuting Evolution’s proposition that various related species were able to survive in proximity with each other for millions of years in order for evolutionary changes to transform into new species.
    4. The 2010 Neanderthal genome project‘s draft report presented evidence for interbreeding between Neanderthals and modern humans. About 20% of distinctly Neanderthal gene variants survive today. Many more may have been interbred into humans but being detrimental died out with the diseased offspring. Also, a large portion of inherited Neanderthal genes appears to be non-coding DNA for which the function is as yet unknown.
    5. Neanderthals also appear to have interbred with Denisovans, a different group of archaic humans, in Siberia.

Strike off the list.

The Denisovans are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic human that ranged across Asia during the Lower and Middle Paleolithic. Denisovans are known from few remains, and, consequently, most of what is known about them comes from DNA evidence. No formal species name has been erected pending more complete fossil material. The first identification of a Denisovan individual occurred in 2010, based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) extracted from a juvenile female finger bone from the Siberian Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains. Nuclear DNA indicates close affinities with Neanderthals. The cave was also periodically inhabited by Neanderthals, but it is unclear whether Neanderthals and Denisovans ever cohabited in the cave.

    1. DNA evidence suggests they had dark skin, eyes, and hair, and had a Neanderthal-like build and facial features.
    2. Denisovans apparently interbred with modern humans, with the highest percentages (roughly 5%) occurring in Melanesians, Aboriginal Australians, and Filipino Negritos.
    3. There is also evidence of interbreeding with the Altai Neanderthal population, with about 17% of the Denisovan genome from Denisova Cave deriving from them.
    4. A first-generation hybrid nicknamed “Denny” was discovered with a Denisovan father and a Neanderthal mother.
    5. Additionally, 4% of the Denisovan genome comes from an unknown archaic human species which diverged from modern humans over one million years ago.

Strike off the list.

Revisiting the above claim that “Findings are so numerous, that their amount now becomes a problem for anthropologists, as dealing with such a number of material is increasingly more difficult.”

Yes, more difficult for maintaining credibility in the concept of human evolution from apes.

(Species) Homo sapienss.s. Anatomically modern humans 0.8–0.3 million years ago

After 11,500 years ago all fossils shown are…anatomically modern humans, illustrating recent divergence in the formation of modern human sub-populations.”

Then why did it take so long – assumedly – for previous populations to diverge?


300,000 BC

“Modern humans evolved from proto-humans, but behaviors continued to be those of their protohuman ancestors – surviving by hunting and gathering for the next 210,000 years without any advances in basic technology or quality of life.”

  1. How can 300,000 year old behaviors be unearthed?
  2. If modern humans are primarily distinguished by intelligence how do hundreds of thousands of years of unchanged primitive behaviors demonstrate modern intelligence??
  3. If modern humans are physically less protected from their environment due to lack of body hair and lack of ability to find safety in trees, but there were no signs of intellectual adaptation of their environment, how on earth did they survive as a species for hundreds of thousands of years against their predators?

164,000 BC

After 136,000 years of hunting and gathering, modern humans make one giant leap for mankind by collecting and cooking shellfish in addition to the other hunter-gatherer foodstuffs.

I can’t make this up. This is from the Smithsonian Institution’s website “What Does It Mean To Be Human.”

120,000 BC

After living exclusively in East Africa for 180,000 years modern humans begin to venture into other territories.

“The difficulty was always this incredible time lag between that occurrence and any more complex aspect of the culture other than just basic survival,”

Glad to see they acknowledge that much.

I would point out that a bigger difficulty is this incredible time lag between that occurrence and the size of the population calculated by even the lowest growth rate considerations.

Oh, wait, no. As noted above, the difficulty is the incredibility of any unprotected humans in the wild surviving at all when all their cousins were going extinct despite being better adapted to the wild.

90,000 BC

It takes 210,000 years for modern humans to invent fishing tools. Gee, you’d think they would have noticed what their cousins were doing.” Primates are well known for using tools for hunting or gathering food and water, cover for rain, and self-defence.”

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