Section III: Cosmology- Fake It ‘Til You Make It

The…exact altitude where space begins is something scientists have been debating since before we even sent the first spacecraft into orbit.

The true outer edge to the Earth’s atmosphere, or a reasonable candidate for it, is the magnetic shock front with the solar wind.

One can also consider the gravitational boundary of the Earth-Moon system with respect to the Sun, conventionally chosen to be the 1.5-million-km radius…these boundaries may be used to distinguish space in the Earth-Moon system from interplanetary space…

Different definitions place the top of the exosphere – earth’s topmost layer of atmosphere – somewhere between 62,000 miles and 120,000 miles above the surface of Earth.

The Kármán line is a generally accepted defined beginning of space, some 62 miles (100 kilometers) above Earth’s surface. 

Sixty miles up in’t at all what I envision whenever I hear the news of “outer space”.  That’s still well within Earth’s atmosphere.

So of all the different definitions of where outer space begins, why 62 miles?

The Kármán line is an arbitrary definition based on some technical considerations. Mainly, it is the height at which the atmosphere becomes so thin that an air-craft can no longer fly – there isn’t enough air under its wings to generate lift.

In 1944 a German V2 rocket reached the greatest height of rockets developed so far – 100 kilometers.

In 1957 the Soviet Union launched the world’s first artificial satellite, orbiting Earth at a height ranging from 200 km to 950 km atop a modified Soviet intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). Sputnik launched the start of the space age and the U.S.-U.S.S.R space race with new political, military, technological, and scientific developments.

In 1958 the U.S. established NASA, stating that America’s space program was strictly civilian.

Seriously? In response to the Soviet Union propelling an ICBM around the world demonstrating they could nuke the U.S. and any of its allies? This is simply incredible.

In 1959 the USSR’s Luna 2 was the first spacecraft to reach the surface of the moon.

In 1959 the U.S. launched the X-15, a small rocket-powered aircraft. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 utilized conventional aerodynamic controls. For flight outside of the appreciable Earth’s atmosphere, the X-15 used hydrogen peroxide rockets which provided thrust for 80 to 120 seconds of flight. The remainder of the normal 10-11 minute flight was powerless and ended with a 200 mile-per-hour glide landing.

The X-15 research aircraft provided inflight information and data on aero-thermodynamics, aerodynamics, structures, flight controls and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow-on program utilized the aircraft to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth’s atmosphere on a repeated basis. The three X-15 aircraft made 199 powered flights, concluding with the last flight on Oct. 24, 1968. Total cost of the X-15 program, including development of the three aircraft, was about $300 million. 

the USAF considered all X-15 flights above 80 km [60 miles]as astronautical flights and gave those pilots astronaut wings

In 1966, the USSR’s Luna 9 became the first spacecraft to achieve a controlled soft landing and Luna 10 became the first spacecraft to orbit the moon.

In 1968 the US’s Apollo 8 was the first manned spacecraft to orbit the moon.

In 1969 the US’s Apollo 11 landed the first man to walk on the moon.

On 16 July 1969, astronauts Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins were strapped into their Apollo spacecraft on top of the vast Saturn V rocket and were propelled into orbit in just over 11 minutes. Four days later, Armstrong and Aldrin became the first humans to set foot on the lunar surface.

An estimated 650 million people watched Armstrong’s televised image and heard his voice describe the event as he took “…one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind” on July 20, 1969.

Or did they?

Before blackballing this writer as an idiot conspiracy theorist, compare this effort made to understand the claim against your own. 

Put this claim in context of technological development. We have to believe that in just ten years the U.S. made a giant leap from developing a rocket that could keep a man aloft in the X-15 for 2 minutes max to a rocket that could travel roughly 500,000 miles to the moon and back.

Put this claim in the context of America preparing for worst-case scenario nuclear war against the Soviets. Whose got the high ground now, baby!! Better think twice about dropping one on us!

Despite the popular belief that space is peaceful, the military has always played a role in its exploration.

Military officers piloted most Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo spacecraft, which its [military] rockets boosted into space.

Behind the scenes, the Pentagon planned its own secret space missions, coordinated by an agency later renamed DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency).

The Cold War took place in the freezing atmosphere of space not that far away from earth.

When we focus on a linear and logical trail of thought, can we not see that the most valuable “space” is that which is closest to earth for military, and of course commercial, purposes?

Today…“The space environment has become increasingly congested, competitive and contested,” Frank Rose, a senior fellow for security and strategy at the Brookings Institution and former assistant secretary of state for arms control, explained to Congress in March 2019…

From the start, the military rationale for space weapons was to control the high ground and shoot down enemies. Such an attack, generals and politicians argued, would be impossible to stop…

The U.S. military dreams of “space superiority” or “counter-space dominance.” Judging by their own publications and statements, Russian and Chinese strategists clearly share such reveries. Nascent space powers like India and North Korea may do so as well. Yet technology advantages often prove fleeting. After all, the U.S. military once had an exclusive hold on atomic weapons, jet aircraft, ICBMs, semiconductors, cyberwarfare, and artificial intelligence. It may still lead in those fields, but it is clearly no longer alone…

As the technologies of space warfare continue to become ever more sophisticated, the Earth seems trapped in a slow spiral of escalation toward open conflict in space. 

Preparation for war is the context in which every – every – activity in space must be viewed.

apollo-moon-landing-hoax-1-213x300-1After collating various sources of data on this subject and comparing and contrasting conflicting statements from NASA itself, I don’t find America’s claim to have landed men on the moon to be a valid – externally supported – or reliable – internally consistent – claim.

Fifty years on, the Apollo Moon program is probably still humankind’s single greatest technological achievement.

Seriously? That statement is simply incredible in light of all the technological achievements made in the last 50 years.

That statement is also incredible in light of

  • the lack of technological achievements made by the U.S. in contrast to the USSR
  • in the 16 years between both seizing existing rocket science as spoils of war from Germany in 1945
  • and initial space achievements.

By 1961 the USSR had beaten the US in every space race event –

  • the first to rocket a man into space,
  • the first to orbit the earth,
  • the first to spend a significant amount of time in space.

But within the next 8 years in a massive technological leap forward the US

  • developed the Saturn Rocket
  • which propelled a series of spaceships in round trips totaling 500,000 miles to the moon and back
  • never again repeated by any nation including the US or the highly competitive Russians or emerging power houses China or India

In 1972 the US sent its last crewed missions to the moon. 1972 was the most recent time humans have set foot on the Moon or traveled beyond low Earth orbit.

impishevenhapuku-small

Saturn V was an American human-rated super heavy-lift launch vehicle used by NASA between 1967 and 1973.

A three-stage, liquid-fueled rocket, te Saturn V was developed under the Apollo program for human exploration of the Moon and was later used to launch Skylab, the first American space station [positioned only 250 miles above earth].

As of 2022, the Saturn V remains the only launch vehicle to carry humans beyond low Earth orbit [defined as 1,200 miles above earth], as well as the tallest, heaviest, and most powerful (highest total impulse) rocket ever brought to operational status…

I encourage you to listen to NASA’s own public service announcement, launched in 2014, on Apollo’s replacement, the Orion spacecraft.

Don’t overlook the visuals in the film created by NASA to publicize their planned mission. It is so realistic that it could easily be misinterpreted as the real thing.

We are headed 3600 miles above earth…As we get further from earth, we’ll pass through the Van Allen Belts, an area of dangerous radiation…But Orion has protection. Shielding will be put to the test as the vehicle cuts through waves of radiation. Sensors aboard will record radiation levels for scientists to study. We must solve these challenges before we send people through these regions of space…It’s time to head home…75 miles above earth…We’re now traveling more than 20,000 miles per hour…An envelope of hot plasma surrounds the vehicle…reaches temperatures of 4,000 degrees Fahrenheit, almost twice as hot as molten lava. This may be the most dangerous part of the flight…A specially constructed heat shield takes the full brunt of the inferno. This is the largest heat shield of its kind ever madeOne day people will be aboardFor the first flight, we won’t have astronauts inside.

Seriously?

NOW NASA is so concerned about the safety of the astronauts – despite the massive advances in aerospace technology in the intervening 40 years – that you won’t expose the astronauts NOW.

But in 1969 – with knowledge of the radiation dangers of the Van Allen Belts but far, far less technology – NASA did.

And successfully, without any damage to equipment or life.

Unbelievable.

It has taken 55 years for any nation to attempt another manned trip to the moon.

But first, they’re going to attempt an unmanned trip to the moon.

What does that tell us?

NASA’s new Orion space capsule is one step closer to…a mission around the moon.

Artemis 1 will be a crucial uncrewed test of the moon program ahead of expected landings by astronauts. During the flight, Orion will swing around the moon carrying sensors and simulated human bodies to measure radiation and stress levels in deep space. Its “passengers” include a “moonikin.”

Following Artemis 1 will be a crewed mission around the moon called Artemis 2, perhaps as soon as 2023. A crewed landing may follow, which NASA is hoping to fly in late 2024.

Wow. Only now being cautious about the capability and safety of landing humans on the moon?

And what about the technology to pull it off?

In early November [2020], engineers at Lockheed Martin working on Orion noticed that a power component inside the vehicle had failed, according to an internal email and an internal PowerPoint presentation seen by The Verge

a representative for Lockheed Martin said in a statement to The Verge. “We are fully committed to seeing Orion launch next year [2021] on its historic Artemis I mission to the Moon…

NASA is now targeting early next year [2022] for the maiden launch of its next megarocket: the Space Launch System. 

The behemoth moon rocket, the first since the Apollo program, is months behind schedule…but could now potentially fly Feb. 12 [2022].

The agency is now targeting a launch in March or April 2022 for its Artemis 1 flight, an uncrewed mission around the moon and the first flight of its massive Space Launch System (SLS) rocket…the first in the Artemis program that aims to return astronauts to the lunar surface later this decade

The results of the most recent wet dress rehearsal test makes Artemis I unlikely to be ready for launch before June 29,

Now September 27, 2022 and still on hold.

Hmm, seems like sending astronauts to the moon is a lot more difficult than what was presented to a gullible public in 1969.

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