41) The Most Recent World Wide Flood

The 1925 Scopes “Monkey” Trial

Clarence Darrow, Scopes’ defense attorney, argued not so much for Scopes’ innocence as he did for an allegorical reading of the creation account and keeping the Bible in the field of theology, not history and science… the legacy of the trial… the rise of a field called “creation science.”

The field of creation science…began to emerge in its modern form with the 1961 publication of The Genesis Flood by John Whitcomb and Henry Morris…The introduction to the book opens with the words,

The question of the historicity and the character of the Genesis Flood is no mere academic issue of interest to a small handful of scientists and theologians. If a worldwide flood actually destroyed the entire antediluvian human population, as well as all land animals, except those preserved in a special Ark constructed by Noah…then its historical and scientific implications are tremendous.

As detailed in the posts Days of Thunder, geological evidence of world-wide sediment layers backs the biblical reports of world-wide floods, ice ages and massive upheavals resulting in the labels Days / eras of creation and Nights / eras of destruction.


The last flood-born sedimentary layers can be attributed to the historic record of the days of Noah.

“In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, in the same day [very specifically stating this is not an era but a 24 hour day] were all the fountains of the great deep broken up…” (Genesis 7:11-12)

The damage that can be caused by flooding, fire and brimstone is catastrophic.

But even more than that, in its wake it left unmistakable scientific evidence validating the biblical record of the final judgment.

Two of the most destructive forces of nature — earthquakes and tsunamis — might actually be more of a threat than current estimates according to new research…

The findings have important implications for…affected areas worldwide, including Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim.


As previously noted, this world map is inaccurate, and in any case the continents weren’t yet separated at the time of Noah’s Flood. When we trace the Ring of Fire on a map of Pangea, we recognize the Ring encircles the outer edge of the land mass. The domino effect of one undersea volcano destabilizing and triggering neighboring volcanoes with their accompanying tsunamis corresponds to the biblical account of fountains of the great deep breaking up.


Archaeologists have found evidence of the largest known earthquake in human history — a terrifying magnitude-9.5 megaquake that caused a 5,000-mile-long (8,000 kilometers) tsunami and prompted human populations to abandon nearby coastlines for 1,000 years, a new study finds.

The earthquake struck about 3,800 years ago [consistent with the date of Noah’s Flood] in what is now northern Chile when a tectonic plate rupture lifted the region’s coastline. The subsequent tsunami…created waves as high as 66 feet (20 meters) and traveled all the way to New Zealand, where it hurled car-size boulders hundreds of miles inland, the researchers found. 

Until now, the largest earthquake ever recorded was the 1960 Valdivia earthquake, which hit southern Chile with a magnitude between 9.4 and 9.6, killing up to 6,000 people and sending tsunamis barreling across the Pacific Ocean. The rupture that caused the Valdivia earthquake was enormous, extending as far as 500 miles (800 km) in length. But…the newly discovered ancient megaquake was even bigger, coming from a rupture roughly 620 miles (1,000 km) long.

“It had been thought that there could not be an event of that size…simply because you could not get a long enough rupture…”

Like the Valdivia earthquake, the ancient quake was a megathrust earthquake, the most powerful type of earthquake in the world. These earthquakes occur when one of Earth’s tectonic plates gets forced, or subducted, underneath another. The two plates eventually get locked into place by friction, but the forces that caused the plates to collide continue to build. Eventually, so much strain gathers that the point of contact between the plates rips apart, creating a gigantic rupture and releasing energy in the form of devastating seismic waves. 

Evidence for the giant quake was found in marine and coastal items…displaced far inland in Chile’s Atacama Desert

As detailed in the post Time: Catastrophism or Uniformitarianism, only catastrophic flood-waters can fossilize organic material into stone by:

  1. suddenly laying down a thick layer of mud to eliminate oxygen contact on a fresh kill to counter the rapid decay process,
  2. soaking with water transporting minerals and salt from the sediments into the organic matter
  3. and providing hydrostatic pressure to force transfer of materials.

As detailed in the post Dating: The Stones Cry Out, there is no accurate method of dating fossils, the sedimentary rock in which they are found, or the volcanic matter often found in close proximity.

Given that the biblical warnings of the future end of the world are credentialed by Noah’s flood and

  1. paralleled by multiple scientific fields,
  2. with scientific evidence for multiple floods reported to have occurred during Earth’s prehistoric ages,
  3. and lack of scientific evidence against the last flood reported in historic times,

it is only sensible to examine the credibility of the biblical account of this last flood documented in detail by historians of the time.

Calculation of the date of the flood based on literal interpretation of the old testament has been a scholarly activity for two millennia. The seventeenth century estimate of the Irish Bishop James Ussher has been accepted among many of the devout. The calculation is undertaken by adding the genealogies beginning in Genesis 11:10…

Bishop Ussher computed that the earth had been created in 4004 BC and that the flood occurred in 2350 BC which was henceforth accepted as the “traditional” biblical date…These traditional chronologies were acceptable among the learned until the foundations of religion were shaken by Darwin and…that ” high priest of uniformitarianism” Charles Lyell, who collectively contribute to the modern, predictable, comfortable, uniform, manageable version of the world that we know as science.

Actually, Bishop Ussher began with the genealogies in Genesis 5 with the lifespans of Adam onward. Which only makes sense. If this writer – from Stanford University, ranked #6 in U.S. colleges in 2022 – can’t get the basic database straight how can we trust anything else he reports?

Fact check everything, my friend.

In the following article recall that there is no scientific basis for the dates reported.

Different studies have concluded that the most violent volcano eruptions in history would be 100 times greater than the energy released by the explosion of the world’s entire nuclear arsenal…


The most violent eruption registered in history was that in the La Garita Caldera in the United States. It…formed a 35 x 75 km crater, drastically changing the climate on Earth…

the Toba Caldera (Indonesia), killed 60% of the population on earth 70,000 years ago.

The biggest supervolcano on Earth was discovered in 2013: the Tamu Massif, with a 4 km height and a 640 km width, a submarine shield volcano located in the Pacific Ocean, east of Japan…

Mount Etna…is still active and is the largest in Europe…It has been active over the past 2,000 years…Since 2018, eruptions have become more recurrent, in fact, the last one occurred on 21 September 2021 and the cloud reached 9 kilometres.

Multiple witnesses provide validation of any legal, scientific, or psychosocial report.

A flood myth or deluge myth is a myth in which a great flood, usually sent by a deity or deities, destroys civilization, often in an act of divine retribution. Parallels are often drawn between the flood waters of these myths and the primaeval waters which appear in certain creation myths…Most flood myths also contain a culture hero, who “represents the human craving for life”.[1]

The flood-myth motif occurs in many cultures

See  List of Flood Myths – Wikipedia.

The accumulated weight of evidence gathered across cultures in every part of the world testifies to the essential common features of these flood accounts. And yet this history is routinely flicked aside as “myth” independently imagined by vast numbers of cultures against all statistical odds and despite being validated by geology.

Floods in the wake of the last glacial period may have inspired myths that survive to this day...It has been postulated that these were caused by

  • in North America, a sudden rise in sea levels caused by the rapid draining of prehistoric Lake Agassiz at the end of the last ice age, about 8,400 years ago.
  • In the Mesopotamian area, the filling of the Persian Gulf after sea waters rose following the last glacial period around 7,500 BP.
  • Based on the 19 mile undersea Burckle Crater, maybe a meteor or comet crashed into the Indian Ocean generating a giant tsunami that flooded coastal lands around 3000–2800 BCE.
  • Because the Greeks believed that the earth had been been covered by water on several occasions and cited discoveries of seashells and fish fossils on mountain tops as evidence, historian Adrienne Mayor theorizes the discoveries preceded the belief. 
  • The Thera eruption of 1630-1600 BC might have led to the world-wide  Deucalion myth although it had only a very local effect on the population affected. 
  • The Black Sea deluge hypothesis offers a controversial account
  • The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis is similarly controversial.

Evolution’s desperation to discredit an historically documented flood in order to discredit the Bible is apparent.

Occam’s razor logic, AKA the KISS explanation for the prevalence of flood myths can be deduced as preserved knowledge by generations of priests dating back only about a few thousand years, well within a credible time frame even for oral history.

The multiple autonomous historical reports of a world-wide flood provide reliability for the enduring biblical account – “the extent to which a research instrument consistently has the same results if it is used in the same situation on repeated occasions.” In the case of the flood, the research instrument is the documentation of memories.

Geological evidence, as detailed in the post Days of Thunder, provides the second crucial determination of the worth of a research project. This is demonstrated in terms of

  • convergent validity where the biblical record correlates closely with other, in this case geological, records,
  • and predictive validity, for predicting future occurrences, since the written prediction is backed up by the geological record of multiple previous occurrences.

There is also, significantly, both documented and geological evidence of the catastrophic formation of the Great Rift Valley during historic times.

This statement is based on the premise that the biblical data provided to locate Eden necessarily references geographical and political features known to the people for whom it was written, that is, the people inhabiting both the pre- and post- world-wide flood topography. It is reasonable to conclude that historic documents detailing the pre-flood world were preserved through the Flood and used by later writers to compile what we know as the first six chapters of the book of Genesis.

The second premise is that Eden is not the name of the garden, but a much wider territory in which the garden was located.

The term “Middle-earth” was not invented by J.R.R. Tolkien. Rather, it comes from…the Old English word middangeard (geard not meaning ‘Earth’, but rather ‘enclosure’ or ‘place’…It is Germanic for what the Greeks called the οικουμένη (oikoumenē) or “the abiding place of men”, the physical world as opposed to the unseen worlds…

In ancient Germanic and mythology, the universe was believed to consist of…interconnected physical worlds.

  1. The world of Men, the Middle-earth, lay in the centre of this universe.
  2. The lands of Elves, [righteous angels] gods [fallen angels], and Giants [demi-gods] lay across an encircling sea [consistent with the biblical sea above the firmament]
  3. The land of the Dead lay beneath the Middle-earth [consistent with the biblical account]
  4. A rainbow bridge, Bifrost Bridge, extended from Middle-earth to Asgard across the sea. [The third heaven, where the biblical God dwells].
  5. An outer sea encircled the seven other worlds (VanaheimAsgardAlfheimSvartalfheimMuspellheimNiflheim, and Jotunheim). [Consistent with the multiverse concept of contemporary physics, and multiple iterations of this world in the Bible.]

Middle-earth is transparently the equivalent of the biblical Eden centered on the original single land mass, Pan-gea.

And the LORD God planted a garden eastward in EdenAnd a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four head[water]s. (Genesis 2:8,10)


Today we can’t find one river parting into four separate rivers within the Levant. This would be due to geographical features being altered by massive hydraulic and tectonic forcesThese were occurring as aftershocks even after known historic landmarks and names were maintained by Moses as he copied older records in his his history, around 1300 BC.


Prehistoric man witnessed the latest phases of widespread tectonic movements which convulsed East Africa and provoked great subsidences [lowering of the land] (of as much as 1500 feet or more)…modifying notably the courses of the rivers…along the entire length of the Rift.


The deepest place in the Rift on land is [not in Africa despite the looks of it as shown in the photo above, but] the valley of the Jordan and the Dead Sea.

It appears that the catastrophe which originated the Dead Sea caused also the origin of the Great Rift.

I don’t know about the origin, but at least one of the convulsions wrenching open the Great Rift Valley was certainly related. This further substantiates the appropriateness of Moses continuing to use the same place names used by the initial recorders of the events only 400 years earlier.

When Abram first entered the land of Canaan, about 2,000 BC, “all the plain of Jordan was well watered every where…as thou comest unto Zoar [southern border of the plain]…before the LORD destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah,

And the plain of Jordan was also called the vale of Siddim notorious for slime pits.

an international team of scientists has been drilling beneath the [Dead] seabed to extract a record of climate change and earthquake history…

The Dead Sea sits in the largest and deepest basin in the world.The scientists chose to drill at its center because they assumed that the sediment that had accumulated there had always been under water, the better preserved for having never been exposed to the atmosphere…

{But] the wildly varying layers of salt and mud represented dry periods and wet ones, respectively. A tiny fragment of wood, which Mr. Lazar said he was guarding like gold, was found…

The gravel [is] similar to that found today on the shores of the Sinai Peninsula

There was a momentary hint of another mystery…a temperature of 104 degrees inside pipes about 1,300 feet down, a finding much higher than expected…

The reading gave rise to thoughts of volcanic activity, right in the area where Sodom and Gomorrah…described in Genesis as having been destroyed by God with fire and brimstone.

“the LORD rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the LORD out of heaven; And he overthrew those cities, and all the plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and that which grew upon the ground…and, lo, the smoke of the country went up as the smoke of a furnace.” (Genesis 19:24-28)

Of the six types of volcanic activity, a Stromboli eruption best fits the description with only small chunks of lava, collectively called tephra, of spatter, scoria, lava bombs,  ash; and small lava flows. This contrasts with massive lava flows of, essentially, melted glass, as occurred at Mount St. Helens which obliterated everything in its path, or explosions of superheated gases and ash as occurred at Vesuvius. One of the least violent of types volcanic explosions, they are nonetheless lethal near inhabited areas.

As you might expect, the Stromboli type of volcano is named after an Italian volcano, which is known to have been continuously active for at least 2,000 years of documented records, who knows how long in records since lost.


It is without question that the Jordan river valley lines up with a known cause of volcanic activity.


Exactly what causes the Stromboli volcanic activity.


The Jordan River demonstrates another condition from the meeting of the the two plates.

The kind of fish you find in it. They are an Ethiopian type of fish.

the explanation of the Ethiopian fish fauna of the Jordan [River] is that the Jordan formed at one time merely…one branch of this huge [Ethiopian] river system, the chain of lakes in East Africa represents the other…

the Jordan streamed [north from Africa] into the valley of Sittim (the name of the plain before the Dead Sea originated) and continued into the Mediterranean, most probably through the Jezreel Valley.


Legendary reminiscences from the patriarchal age indicate that the coming out of Paddan-aram to Canaan required the passage of a river. Today the way from Palestine to the north does not require the crossing of water. 

But if the Jordan did flow through the Esdraelon Valley into the Mediterranean, it had to flow in a direction opposite [northwest] to the one in which it flows today [southeast].

An inscription of Thutmose I reads: “Frontier northern [of Egypt], as far as that inverted water which goeth down in going up [emphasis added].”…The river that reversed its direction is the Jordan…

Pisoncompasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold…bdellium and the onyx stone…”

The ancient eponymous founder Havilah, is the grandson of Ham, son of Cush, and nephew to Mizraim / Egypt.

the sons of Ishmael…by their towns, and by their castles; twelve princes according to their nations…dwelt from Havilah unto Shur, that is before Egypt, as thou goest toward Assyria:” (Genesis 25:16-18)

So ancient Havilah consisted of a territory beginning at Egypt’s boundary, going eastward to Assyria. When we fit this geographical puzzle piece into the gap left by the other known settled territories such as the land of Canaan, the land of Uz, Padan-Aram, etc. we are left with the Arabian peninsula. And this is confirmed by Arabs who identify themselves as descendants of Ishmael. 

Since time immemorial, rivers have been the lifeblood of civilization“, so we should expect to find a river flowing through the land of Havilah.

Dr. Farouq El-Baz, NASA scientist and Professor at Boston University piqued the interest of Biblical scholars around the world with his announcement of the so-called Kuwait River. The idea that a river once flowed across the deserts of Arabia, and somehow connected with the Tigris and/or Euphrates River, seemed far-fetched. Yet evidence for such a river came from the satellite radar images taken during the 1994 mission of the Space Shuttle Endeavor. Al-Baz studied the images, and noticed that traces of a defunct river that crossed northern Arabia from west to east were visible beneath the sands, thanks to the ground-penetrating capabilities of the radar technologies. He called it the Kuwait River…for that is where it apparently connected with the Euphrates or emptied into the Persian Gulf…

Then as the region became one of the driest in the world, blowing sands covered the channel.

“And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia / Cush, father of Havilah, son of Ham, brother to Mizraim / Egypt.”

The Gihon winds through the ‘land of Ethiopia’ – that is, the land of the Nile tributaries…

But the ‘land of Cush’ more accurately refers to the ancient kingdom of Cush (or Kush) that existed in Nubia as early as 2000 BC

Highly significantly,  there exists a spring, i.e. underground source, of Gihon in Jerusalem to this day. By tracking the underground source of the Gihon, we realize that this is not the Nile reversing direction from Jerusalem south into Africa to north out of Africa, but the effect of plate tectonics burying the Gihon, perhaps still traversing to Ethiopia via a fairly straight path under the Red Sea.

The use of ancient place names assures us that the Gihon is not a previous name for the Nile.

From here on it’s straightforward.

“And the name of the third river is Hiddekel / Tigris: that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria.”

“And the fourth river is Euphrates.”

There is, of course, a religious challenge to the location of Eden, based on the fact that three of the named four rivers conveniently meet in southern Mesopotamia. Islam asserts that Eden is located there, and designates a nearby river as Gihon. This river, however, is not mentioned in the text that provides solid clues for the identity of all four rivers, and moreover, arising from the source, not spilling into the Garden of Eden. The plate tectonics are not in the region to allow the possibility that all four rivers changed course along with the massive mountain ranges from which three of the rivers originate.


Putting the puzzle pieces together, the big picture that emerges is that the headwaters / origin of these four rivers – Pison, Nile, Tigris and Euphrates – emerged from the river that watered the garden which was eastward in Eden.

On the basis of the data gathered and the biblical geography centered on Jerusalem we may conclude that Eden is currently located under the Medi-terra-nean (Middle of the Earth) Sea.

Geological surveys show that this area was once dry land then covered by a massive flood.

The Mediterranean Sea was formed by the most spectacular flood in Earth’s history when water from the Atlantic Ocean breached the mountain range joining Europe and Africa with the force of a thousand Amazon rivers, scientists say…  

The deluge was triggered 5.3m years ago by subsidence [dropping] in the seabed [“fountains of the great deep were opened up” Genesis 7:11] that caused a land ridge between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean basin to collapse. The ridge linked the Betic and Rif mountain ranges that hug the coasts of modern Spain and Morocco.

As water began to pour across the strait , it eroded the ridge until the flow became a catastrophic deluge. At the time, the Mediterranean basin was an almost entirely dry expanse of low lying land, between 1.5km and 2.7km beneath today’s sea level.

The surge of water created a channel several kilometres wide that would become the Strait of Gibraltar…

A team led by Garcia-Castellanos used data from boreholes and seismic surveys in the area to reconstruct the deluge conditions in a computer model.

Subsidence in the sea floor at the strait allowed water from the Atlantic to pour slowly into the Mediterranean basin for several thousand years, before the flow became a powerful surge that filled 90% of the Mediterranean very rapidly – between a few months and two years [And the waters prevailed upon the earth 150 days.” Genesis 7:24]

Note – the range of time given for this flood, from thousands of years to only 2 years, is a diplomatic concession to the two geological paradigms of Uniformitarianism and Catastrophism.

I find it insulting to science that the ancient records that are scientifically validated are disregarded in favor of a new religion that has struggled to get off the ground for hundreds of years in the face of multiple scientific advances.

That includes not only Evolution, but Young Earth Creationism in fundamental Christianity.

I have provided the latest geological evidence for Noah’s flood as the last of a series of water-born catastrophic events listed in Genesis 1 and fleshed out in Job,

This perspective is categorized as apostasy – “old earth” creationism opening the door to Evolution by fundamentalist dispensationalists.

Perhaps the most enduring legacy of the Scopes Trial…was that old-earth creationism was not consistent with an approach to the Bible as the divinely inspired Word of God. The outcome was two dichotomous options, Darwinian evolution and young-earth creationism…as the only theologically viable approach to the Bible…the old-earth model received a mortal wound at the Scopes Trial. The severity of the wound would be revealed nearly a half-century later…

in 1967, Lynn White wrote a paper entitled “The Historic Roots of our Ecologic Crisis,” in which he laid much of the blame for an impending environmental catastrophe at the feet of Christians, due to dominionist views that led to overconsumption of natural resources…

For Jerry Falwell—the dispensationalist pastor who organized the Religious Right’s flagship organization, the Moral Majority, in 1979—legislation that attempted to reduce emissions of fossil fuels ran afoul on two grounds…For Falwell, free-market capitalism, without restrictions such as on the burning of fossil fuels, was Cold- War America’s front-line defense against communism and best assurance of a high value of human life.

But what about the Bible’s clear mandate on righteous behavior? What about the Third World countries whose natural resources are being exploited to keep American consumers gratified with low prices?

On another level, acknowledgment of climate change…went against the wisdom of YEC and creation science; instead, these concerns fell back on…mainstream science, which was not based on the Bible….For Falwell and like-minded fundamentalists and evangelicals in the Religious Right, the push for environmentalism took Christians away from worshiping the Creator and instead emphasized created things.

Really? This reveals the perverted interpretation of “have dominion” and ignores the clear statement of scripture:

O Lord God Almighty…thy wrath is come…that thou shouldest…destroy them which destroy the earth...And the temple of God was opened in heaven…and there were lightnings, and voices, and thunderings, and an earthquake, and great hail.” (Revelation 11:17-19)

During the 1980s heyday of the Religious Right…Reagan’s administration, particularly under Secretary of the Interior James Watt, not only decreased the budget of the Environmental Protection Agency but also eliminated many environmental laws from the past two decades…also saw markedly increased drilling and burning of fossil fuels…would lay an important foundation for the next generation of YEC apologists…

acknowledgment of climate change challenges a literal interpretation of Genesis and, by extension, the authority of the entire Bible.

If one is unable to believe that God means what He says—that He created the earth in six literal, 24-h days—then that person is unable to uphold the divine authority of the entire Bible…if Christians can call the Genesis account into question, then they can also delegitimize the gospel record of the life of Christ and any other part of the Bible…

One might note with a sense of irony that, in this view as with the early incursions of Darwinism into American Protestantism, science—creation science—actually becomes the arbiter of the Bible…

Jim Wallis, the founder of Sojourners, has long been leading a movement of evangelicals who are calling for climate justice as part of fulfilling the biblical mandate to be stewards of creation. He quotes Isaiah 24:5-6 to show the significance of creation care for Christian faith…

The earth lies polluted under its inhabitants; for they have transgressed laws, violated the statues, broken the everlasting covenant [to have dominion]. Therefore a curse devours the earth, and its inhabitants suffer for their guilt” (NRSV).

This passage goes on to prophecy the same reaction by God against the first organized rebellion detailed in Genesis 1:

“From the uttermost part of the earth have we heard songs, even glory to the righteous. BUT! I said…woe [NOT glory!] unto me! the treacherous dealers have dealt treacherously; yea, the treacherous dealers have dealt very treacherously.

Fear, and the pit, and the snare, are upon thee, O inhabitant of the earth…for the windows from on high are open, and the foundations of the earth do shake. The earth is utterly broken down, the earth is clean dissolved, the earth is moved exceedingly. The earth shall reel to and fro like a drunkard, and…it shall fall, and not rise again…when the LORD of hosts shall reign in mount Zion” (Isaiah 24:16-23)

The statement that this last time the earth shall not rise again supports the understanding that in previous iterations of this situation the earth did recover its footing.

What is the difference between evangelicals who deny anthro-pogenic [human generated] climate change and those who advocate for climate justice as part of the pro-life evangelical social conscience?…whether or not sustaining biblical authority requires [an English language] literalist [24 hour days of creation], young-earth approach to Genesis…

For many, biblical authority means biblical literalism…the words of the text can be universally understood outside of their original cultural [and language] context…

What does undermine the Bible’s authority is when something other than the Bible becomes a normative [establishing the standard] counterpart to the Bible; hence, the central doctrine of the Reformation was sola scriptura, not biblical literalism.

Sola scriptura, meaning by scripture alone, is a Christian theological doctrine held by some Protestant Christian denominations, in particular the Lutheran and Reformed traditions of Protestantism, that posits the Bible as the sole infallible source of authority for Christian faith and practice…

In this vein of sola scriptura, even if creation science is scientifically sound, it is theologically unsound because…the authority of the Bible rests on the reliability of creation science. [Ken Ham’s] Creation Museum visibly displays why creation science is an essential component of biblical authority and why biblical authority collapses apart from the teachings of creation science…creation science has effectively become the norm [standard] that norms [legitimizes] the Bible. This view is theologically incompatible with sola scriptura…

YEC apologists…posit that a literal reading of Genesis is necessary if the gospel accounts of the life of Christ are to be considered reliable. Yet this approach is the reverse of the doctrine of solus Christus, which teaches that the integrity of the Genesis account—along with the rest of the Bible—hinges on Jesus Christ as the incarnate Word of God. Whether or not creation science is scientifically sound…reliance on the creation account as a whole-Bible hermeneutic is theologically unsound because it places the Genesis narrative, rather than the gospel, at the center of divine revelation

As such, evangelicals who conceptualize the Bible’s divine authority in terms of sola scriptura rather than literalism [of 24 h days of creation]…do not need [Ken Ham’s] creation science in order to believe that the Bible is true, and they can recognize that the Bible does not necessarily disagree with much (though certainly not all) of modern science. Rather, the Bible stands on its own merit, and the fact that burning fossil fuels is causing widespread damage does not undermine biblical authority…faith in the Bible as the inspired Word of God and the centrality of Christ in divine revelation are precisely what motivate the call to end our dependence on fossil fuels.

This hermeneutic of sola scripture…places a high value on human life…our dependence on oil has led to wars in oil-rich countries such as Iraq; those wars have decimated local cultures and severely impoverished the people. These challenges in oil-rich countries are compounded by climate change, which is affecting the world’s poorest people at a much more accelerated rate than those in affluent countries that consume the most oil….

Climate justice begins with placing…the centrality of Christ back at the center of the evangelical social conscience…

Hear Hear!

Qualitative data – eliciting in-depth attitudes – demonstrating that Noah’s flood wasn’t the first, but rather the last, flood include the extravagant reassurances God gives over and over again in nine verses (Genesis 9:9-17). Put some life into the written word! Feel how this is a parent telling his children to trust him, “I promise I won’t let you die!” under dire circumstances.


Can you think of any other place in the Bible where God goes to this extent making promises in the same passage? Well, yes: John 13:31 – 17:26, summarized as “And ye now therefore have sorrow: but I will see you again…”

“And God spake unto Noah, and to his sons with him, saying,

  1. neither shall all flesh be cut off any more by the waters of a flood;
  2. neither shall there any more be a flood to destroy the earth.
  3. the waters shall no more become a flood  to destroy all flesh.
  4. And the bow shall be in the cloud…This is the token of the covenant, which I have established between me and all flesh that is upon the earth.” (Genesis 9)

There is a reason for it.

Put yourselves in their shoes. What is not recorded is undoubtedly the frantic babbling, sobbing and screaming from the eight people with severe Acute Traumatic Stress Disorder as they freeze at the door of the ark, shocked at the view of a devastated and utterly alien world, terrified of experiencing first-hand the raging storms, lightening crashes, tsunami waves, the explosions from volcanos of “the great deep” or asteroids breaking through the “windows of heaven” they somehow survived in the art, but by now their will to live is broken, they are resigned to death and can’t endure the awful conditions of the ark any longer.

Science describes the Ark occupants’ terrifying experience.

While we cannot be absolutely certain of the physical cause of Noah’s flood, the bombardment of asteroids on the earth, as explained by the RATE group, seems to be very high on the list of possibilities. Since there is evidence on the earth of at least 110 impact craters, those that crashed into the sea would have the following effects, but for a more detailed description, see here.

  • Giant tsunamis would swamp the land area of the world
  • Vast quantities of water would jet up into the lower atmosphere, to fall back on the land as rain
  • The earth’s crust would be broken up into the tectonic plates we see today
  • Vast amounts of molten magma would flow up into the sea through the fractured sea bed, turning millions or billions of gallons of sea water into steam, which would rise up into the lower atmosphere and then fall back to earth as rain
  • A run-away process of subduction (see next paragraph) would be initiated, causing a rapid movement of the tectonic plates and dividing the single land mass into the separated islands we see today

…as the ocean floor (in the areas of the ocean trenches) sinks into the mantle, it drags the rest of the ocean floor with it, in a conveyor-belt-like fashion. The sinking slabs of cold ocean floor produce stress in the surrounding hot mantle rock. These stresses, in turn, cause the rock to become hotter and more deformable, allowing ocean slabs to sink even faster. The ultimate result is a runaway process that causes the entire pre-Flood ocean floor to sink to the bottom of the mantle in a matter of a few weeks. As the slabs sink (at rates of feet-per-second) down to the mantle/core boundary, enormous amounts of energy are released.” (Quote from here)

  • Only a rapid movement of the tectonic plates could generate enough energy to uplift the huge mountains of the earth to their present height – today’s slow movement simply would not have the power to do this.


  • The huge asteroid impacts on the earth’s surface (any one of which would have had the force of 100,000 hydrogen bombs) would explain the sudden switches of the earth’s magnetic polarity seen in the cooled magma on the sea bed.
  • The cataclysmic impacts would trigger giant super-volcanoes and earthquakes over the following decades, which in turn would send vast amounts of smoke, ash, soot, etc. into the atmosphere, massively reducing the sun’s rays.
  • The hot magma pouring into the ocean would heat it up, while at the same time the reduced sun’s rays on the land would cool that down: the result of warm sea against cold land is snow – and lots of it! This would produce the ice age, lasting several hundred years. It has been calculated that 2,300 feet of ice could accumulate in 500 years by this process.

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