We can track Lucifer’s dynasty through the major world empires, beginning with the foundational genealogies provided in the Bible and other ancient writings.
- The original Babylonian, Nimrod
- The Assyrian, Sargon
- The Neo-Babylonian Nebuchadnezzar
- the Medo-Persian, most likely Darius the Great since Cyrus the Great was God’s man.
- the Greek Alexander the Great
- the Roman Augustus Caesar and his heirs including those taking his family name, in their language, such as the Tsar of Russia and the Kaiser of Germany, as well as those who did not take the name of Caesar but as aristocracy shared the lineage.
Driving the point home that we are in fact dealing in these kingdoms with hyper dimensional beings in world events, Daniel expressly states that these governments are headed by hyper dimensional beings in alliance with humans, in both hybrid forms as expressed above, and in fully hyper dimensional form.
“Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning…informed me…the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and twenty days: but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me; and I remained there with the kings of Persia…and when I am gone forth, lo, the prince of Grecia shall come.” (Daniel 9:21-22, 10:12-13, 20)
“There is a God in heaven that…maketh known…what shall be in the latter days…Thou, O king [Nebuchadnezzar], art a king of kings: for the God of heaven hath given thee a kingdom, power, and strength, and glory…
- Thou art this head of gold.
- And after thee shall arise another kingdom inferior to thee
- and another third kingdom of brass, which shall bear rule over all the earth.
- And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all things: and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise. And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potters’ clay, and part of iron…they shall mingle themselves with the seed of men…
And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever.” (Daniel 2:28-45)
The fourth kingdom isn’t a sole proprietor. All four kingdoms remain in existence and active, from their beginning to the present time until the last day. Each successive kingdom absorbs the previous kingdoms into an ever expanding territorial reach coinciding with an expanding world population.
The historical record and current news support this reading that they are still “striving” for dominance amongst themselves as Iraq, Iran, Turkey/Ottoman Empire (original homeland of the Greeks and Alexander the Great’s primary goal for reclaiming as homeland), and the Europeans including overseas territories of America, Canada, and Australia.
A Brief History of World Wars
When we add the narrative into the timeline of world empires, we discover that that these are not isolated biblical entities of interest only to students of eschatology. These are the governments that continue to shape the world as we know it today.
And they all trace back to Babylon.
The land between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers – Mesopotamia – is called the Cradle of Civilization because it is the birthplace of the oldest civilization in the world. The Sumerian, which can be credibly traced back to the pre-flood world-wide civilization, became the Mother of All Civilizations. She brought forth the Adversary’s objective at Nimrod’s Tower of Babel – to bring all humanity back together under the rule of the gods, as it was before the Flood.
Concurrent with the timeline for Mesopotamia, excavations show ancient settlements in Greece dating prior to 3,000 BC, i.e. before the Flood by identifiably unique cultures called the Minoans (2600-1500 BC), with rapid resettlement after the Flood by the Mycenaeans (1500-1150 BC) and the Cycladics. The famous Trojan War occurred ~1300 BC between city states of Troy in Asia Minor and Sparta in mainland Greece.
Take the words literally as well as abstractly.
“Babylon…made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication.” (Revelation 14:8)
The gods worshipped by the nations that scattered from the Tower of Babel can all be traced back to Babylon, and every world empire seizes Babylon as a key objective of war.
- 2000 BCE Babylon controls Fertile Crescent.
- 1595 BCE – 1155 BCE Kassite Dynasty of the Hittites in Asia Minor, modern day Turkey, sacks and rules over Babylon. Begin of Babylonian “dark ages.”
- ~1300 A spin-off from the legendary accounts of the Trojan War is that Aeneas, a prince of Troy, second only to Hector in heroism, was a demigod, the son of Aphrodite. After the destruction of Troy on the western shore of Asia Minor, Aeneas traveled to the frontier of civilization where he founded the settlement that would become Rome.
- 1220 BCE – 729 Babylon is under Assyrian control ruling from Ninevah.
- 700’s BC – Homer’s epic poems are written down and circulated among Greek colonies on the Italian peninsula, appropriated in later years by Latins to buff up their hayseed latecomers image to respectable.
- 753 BC – Rhea, daughter of a rustic king, was confined to the pagan equivalent of a nunnery by her uncle after he had deposed her father / his older brother, the king, to prevent the birth of a rival claimant to the throne. Nevertheless, the god Mars impregnated her, and she gave birth to the twins Romulus and Remus. They became leaders of a band of warriors. After killing his brother, Romulus founded his own settlement, naming it Rome after himself. In what was a common practice at that time, he ensured the continuity of his tribe by the Rape, AKA Abduction, of the Sabine Women. This, like the similar incident triggering the Trojan War, led to a series of wars between neighboring city states.
- 612 BCE Nineveh is sacked and burned by combined forces of Babylonians and Medes.
- 605 BC Nebuchadnezzar becomes king of Babylon.
- 509 BC – overthrow of the Roman kings and the early Roman Republic (509–264 BCE)
- 450’s BC – The Decem-viri, Latin for “ten men” primarily but not uniquely designating the landmark commission that resolved the two-hundred-year civil conflict between the patricians and the commoners. The party / fathers / rulers / leaders were wealthy by virtue / power of land ownership. They had developed into the aristocracy by monopolizing the priesthoods, which in those days was invariably integrated into politics. The plebeians – the commoners – were sharecroppers or small land holders, increasing numbers of whom had become enslaved, often for life, to pay off indebtedness to the landowners during years of hardship. The Decemviri prepared 10 tables of law based on the laws of Athens, which established the foundation for all subsequent Roman law. However, no real power was transferred to the plebs under an increasingly powerful aristocracy. Unlike their Greek counterparts, Rome was able to subjugate her rival city-states and united them under the single banner of the city of Rome…transforming Rome into a sophisticated and powerful fighting force….the Roman military machine which was able to conquer and subjugate…to expand to…the largest empire of the ancient world by, like Greece, working from its western boundary to the eastern-most territory.
- 400’s BC – Greece is growing into maturity, creating the foundations of uniquely western civilization in all domains of culture, including philosophy, music, drama, rhetoric and even a new regime called democracy. It is not exaggerating to say that this period changed the history of the world…Herodotus, Father of History, compiles first extensive history from oral traditions, reflects Greece’s world-wide trading extent, focuses on Greek-Persian wars.
- 331 BC Alexander the Great wins the last Greco-Persian war and incorporates Persia into Greece, rules from Babylon.
- 300’s BC – Greek culture spread throughout Mesopotamia.
- 168 BC and onwards, the Romans absorbs Greek city-states and culture. The Greek language served as a lingua franca in the Roman Empire. The Romans read the classical philosophers and base their religion on the Olympian gods. Greece – which included Asia Minor – is a major crossroads of maritime trade between Mediterranean Rome and the eastern half of the empire.
- 146 BC The entire Greek peninsula falls to the imperialist Roman Republic.
- 64 BC Pompey incorporates Greek Syria from Anatolia to the Euphrates.
- 45 BC Julius Caesar becomes dictator of Rome during widespread civil unrest and international war.
- 33 BC Mark Antony occupies Persian territory.
- 27 BC – the establishment of the Roman Empire. Julius Caesar and Augustus Caesar claimed descent from the demi-god Aeneas.
- 66 AD – The Roman Emperor Nero visited Greece and performed at the Ancient Olympic Games, despite the rules against non-Greek participation, and was honored with a victory in every contest, returning the favor by proclaiming the freedom of the Greeks, which changed their status from conquered peoples to citizens with rights. The Pax Romana was the longest period of peace in Greek history.
- 100’s AD – Following the apostolic evangelism of Greek Asia Minor, this region quickly became one of the most highly Christianized areas of the empire.
- 166 AD Trajan incorporates Babylon into the Roman Empire.
- 300’s AD – Constantine relocates the primary seat of Roman government to the bridge between East and West, naming the new Roman capitol after himself.
So what about that two-legged feature?
Feet and toes: first view of revived Rome
The terms Western Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire were coined in modern times… contemporary Romans did not consider the Empire to have been split into two separate empires but viewed it as a single polity governed by two geographically separated imperial courts as an administrative expediency.
285 – First division into administrative jurisdictions under one Emperor
Rome’s federation was instituted first as the Tetrarchy, or Four Rulers, in AD 285 by Diocletian, the notorious persecutor of Christians, in response to the Crisis of the 3rd century. This was a fifty year period during which the Empire nearly collapsed from invasion, civil war, plague, and economic depression. You know the Christians were expecting Christ’s return at any moment back then. And didn’t Constantine show up and save the day.
324 – Constantine the Great
During the Crisis, a child was born, a son was given: and the government was put upon his shoulder: and his name was called Wonderful, Counsellor, The Prince of Peace, The Everlasting, Undeviating, Constant-ine. By the way, these are all characteristics of Apollo.
Constantine’s father raised himself to the rank of Augustus / god-endowed senior emperor. After his death, Constantine emerged victorious in a series of civil wars against rival Emperors to become sole ruler of the Empire by 324 AD. This began a New World Order under the Roman Empire as Constantine
- established dynastic succession,
- strengthened the empire with many administrative, financial, social, and military reforms,
- controlled inflation with a new gold coin which became the standard European currency for more than a thousand years,
- chose to rule from Byzantium, which became known as the New Rome.
476 – The reports of my death are greatly exaggerated
Ostensibly Bible-believing conservative Christians believe that the Roman Empire ceased to exist.
In the prophetic eyes of God, the Roman Empire…fell from world dominion but…a confederacy or union of leadership will arise out of a revival of the remains of the Roman Empire to step into the prophecy role that leads to fulfillment of the Last Days prophecies.
The European Union has risen up from the remains of the Roman Empire so to lead the world into the Great Tribulation.
However, biblical prophecy indicates a continuation of this fourth kingdom to the end of human rulers. If this can be believed – and it is certainly credible given the Bible’s track record on foretold history for the last 2,500 years – this fourth beast must have left a trail of his scat. It is simply our failure to recognize its essential features, despite changes in territory, incorporation of different cultures, even name changes, that leaves us unsuspecting victims of stalking and sudden destruction.
The fact is, when the barbarian Odoacer deposed the sitting Western Emperor Romulus Augustus Zeno he wisely restrained his ambitions to being crowned King of one state in the Empire. Like Herod, who had been King of Judea, “the Senate in Rome sent an embassy to the Eastern Emperor and bestowed upon him the Western imperial insignia. The message was clear: the West no longer required a separate Emperor, for “one monarch sufficed [to rule] the world”. In response, Zeno accepted his submission… conferred upon Odoacer the title of Patrician and granted him legal authority to govern Italy in the name of Rome.” Odoacer settled so many Germanic tribes into Roman territories, granting them Roman citizenship, that he and his successors were henceforth called the “King of the Germans.”
Now there’s a clue.
(Odoacer’s coins struck in the name of Emperor Zeno, testifying to the formal submission of Odoacer to Zeno.)
From 527-565 Emperor Justinian in Constantinople devoted his reign to restoring Roman rule to all its old expanse, much of which had been seized by Germanic tribes fleeing the Hun invasion of their northern European homelands. Justinian’s general, Belisarius, considered an equal with such military genii as Alexander, Julius Caesar and Napoleon, took northern Africa from the Vandals, reclaimed Italy from the Goths, and fought the Persians. The Code of Justinian systematized the confused accumulation of Roman laws and remained in force for a thousand years, becoming the foundation of all modern European and Neo-European (American, Canadian, Australian) legal systems. Believing that religious unity was indispensable to political unity, Justinian incorporated his version of Christianity into the Code, punishing heresy by death.
7th Century – Roman Empire Splits Into Legs – Christian West and Islamic East
Muhammad c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE), the founder of Islam, claimed to be God’s Messenger, the final prophet of God sent to restore orthodox monotheism previously preached by Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus.
Maybe Muhammad was a true believer, a Hebrew. We don’t know because, like Jesus, he didn’t leave any of his own writings behind. We can expect that his successors, like the Gnostics and other corrupt Christian leaders, distorted his message while writing the Koran to suit their power grabs. Certainly the immediate split into Shi’ite and Sunni sects supports this logic.
It is easy enough to see an Antichrist Roman Emperor in Pseudo-Christian rulers like Constantine who reshaped our Judeo-Christian heritage. We also need to recognize Antichrist Roman Emperor in the monotheistic Muslim rulers who recognize but overrule the authority of the Bible.
Islam’s jihad, or holy war is all about becoming the god of this world’s overlord of the Fourth Kingdom.
This is easy to see when we overlaying a map of the classical Roman Empire with the same territory during the Middle Ages. From the 600s onward, the “Eastern”, i.e. Islamic, Roman Empire stretched from the Black Sea to the Atlantic and waxed and waned from its home base of Asia Minor, Greece and Eastern Europe over Germany, France, Italy and Spain
What! The Roman Empire can’t be Islamic!
Oh yes it can.
According to Daniel chapter 2 and Daniel 7:19-20, key identifiers of the fourth kingdom are that it
- joins West with East,
- is diverse from all kingdoms, polishing its autocratic rule by a veneer of Republican power-sharing bodies like senates and parliaments.
- devours the whole earth – controls a great amount of the world
- treads down and break it in pieces – whatever it can’t incorporate, it crushes and tears apart as a threat to its authoritarianism.
- Last, but by no means least, imposes a new religious orthodoxy. There is no denying this fact, yet it seems to have escaped the attention of many ostensibly Bible-believing fundamentalist Christians.
- 45 BC Julius Caesar becomes first emperor of Roman Empire, accepts all pagan religions, monotheistic Jews granted privilege of exemption from emperor worship.
- 395 Emperor Theodosius establishes a paganized New Testament Christianity as Rome’s state religion, including transforming Jesus Christ’s identity into the pagan sun god and saints as the lesser gods. This exclude all Old Testament Jewish elements. Jews are reviled and persecuted as well as Gentile believers who maintain Jewish elements of faith and practice.
- 610 Muhammed leads his pagan Arab people to return to the original faith of the prophets, such as Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, Solomon and Jesus with submission (Islam) to the will of God. This religious faith spreads like wildfire through the next centuries, taking over the Roman Eastern and African territories.
- 636 AD – Islam’s era-marking Battle of Yarmouk. Islam’s first battles were against the Roman occupied Byzantine states of Syria, Palestine, and Lebanon.
- 637 AD Battle of Qadasiya first milestone in conquering Iraq over the next dozen years. Within a few years the Muslims had also conquered parts of Egypt to the South and Asia Minor and Armenia to the North.
- In the 1500’s AD Babylon, Persia and the Levant were absorbed into the Turkish Ottoman Empire based in Asia Minor.
Invasions and mass migrations during the Middle Ages caused massive redistribution of power, reflected in the rise and fall of claimants for legal succession of pieces of the Roman Empire. Don’t be misled by some of the labels on the maps. “‘Byzantine Empire’ is a term created by the Latins after the end of the Greek side of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to themselves as Romans and to their empire as the Roman Empire or Romania, which means ‘citizens of Rome.'”
The Roman Empire is famous for civil war by ambitious men clawing their bloody way to the heights of power. It therefore should be utterly expected to recur whenever opportunities presented. As when the Emperor in Constantinople, ruling an intact though disorganized Roman Empire, was focusing all his attention and resources fighting against an expansionist Islam power to the east.
And so in 800 the current King of the Germans, Charlemagne crowned himself Roman Emperor by proxy of the Pope at Rome. While, like Odoacer, he and his heirs did not deny the title to the ruler in Constantinople, unlike Odoacer, he did aspire to assume equal status to the Emperor of the East as their co-regents. This was a not uncommon practice when internal or external circumstances called for more leadership than one person could deliver. There was specific precedent during the Tetrarchy, or Four Rulers, in AD 285 by Diocletian, in response to the same desperate circumstances facing waves of Eastern invasions, plague and dire economic straits.
In 900, under the same dire circumstances, Simeon I of Bulgaria fought his way to official Byzantine recognition as Caesar / Tsar of the Bulgarians without taking away from Constantinople’s status as Emperor. This title was used by Bulgarian heads of state until the monarchy was abolished in 1946.
In 962 Otto I was crowned, likewise, in German, a “Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser” of his western section of the Roman Empire.
In 1157 under the German Frederick I Barbarossa the word “Holy” was added to reflect Frederick’s ambition to dominate Italy and the Papacy. In 1512, following the fall from power of Byzantium’s Eastern Orthodox capitol, the name was officially changed to Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.
This reflects the jostling for power for one of the “co-regents” to become the “first among equals.”
Although we refer to Republican and Imperial periods of the Rome, Republican values were still paid lip service during Augustus’ reign and beyond. A semblance of democracy, although more of a façade, was reverentially upheld under Augustus and subsequent Emperors.
The Republic came to a practical end with Julius Caesar, but it was actually more a process of wearing away than an outright switch from patrician semi-democracy to wholesale monarchy. It seems that instability and war were suitable reasons or excuses for entering an authoritative political phase, but admitting to the end of the Republic was an idea that the people and senate would need getting used to.
Augustus’ solution was to create a system of government often referred to as the ‘principate’. He was Princeps, meaning ‘first citizen’ or ‘first among equals’, an idea that was in fact incongruous with the reality of the situation…
he consolidated the powers of the military and tribunal, became head of the state religion and gained the power of veto of the magistrates.
Primus inter pares is a Latin phrase meaning first among equals…
Various modern figures such as the chair of the United States Federal Reserve System, the prime minister of parliamentary countries…the Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court…the Archbishop of Canterbury of the Anglican Communion and the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople of the Eastern Orthodox Church fall under both senses: bearing higher status and various additional powers while remaining still merely equal to their peers.
There is always – always – the use of religion to empower politics.
Latin-speaking Rome began to claim superiority over Greek-speaking Constantinople, and disputes arose over church boundaries and control. In 1054, after six centuries in the making, the Great Schism occurred between the church of Constantinople and the Church of Rome, creating the Roman Catholic Church vs the Greek Orthodox Church.
In 1204 total alienation of the two church occurred during the Fourth Crusade when Christian knights on their way to save Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the Muslims were diverted to attack and capture Constantinople. Thousands of Orthodox Christians were murdered, churches and icons were desecrated, and undying hostility developed between Eastern and Western Christian Churches.
We will recognize – and anticipate, the ruler of the Fourth Empire by his role at Jerusalem.
First he presents himself as savior of Jerusalem, then unleashes the slaughter of the inhabitants of Jerusalem.
The following account is an extremely abbreviated history, providing just the broad strokes of the invasion and occupation of Jerusalem.
- Rome: In the 1st century AD, Israel lost its independence and Jerusalem came under the Fourth Kingdom’s militaristic rule, based at that time in Rome, Italy, religiously pagan.
- Byzantium: From the 4th – 7th centuries, the capitol of the Roman Empire moved to the Eastern half of the Empire to better wage war against waves of invaders from the eastern steppes. This was labeled the Byzantine Empire because of a shift in culture, including religion change to a veneer of Christian while incorporating paganism.
- Islam: In the 7th century the Arab Empire incorporated the previous three empires – the Ancient Greek homeland of Anatolia, Persia/Iran and Babylon/Iraq under the rule of monotheistic Allah, challenging the Jew’s YHVH and Christian’s Trinity. Mohammed, the founder of Islam, called the Christian West the “Romans”, and called for jihad – imposition of Allah’s righteous rule over the earth through conquest. This about it. Is this any different than the US waging war to impose democracy? In any case, since the rise of Islam there has been perpetual warfare between the Christians and Moslems for control of Jerusalem, “The City Which Is Called By My Name / Way” of Salem / Peace.
In 638 ce, Sophronius, the Patriarch of Jerusalem, peacefully surrendered the city and the welfare of the Christian community to the Second Caliph Omar bin Al- Khattab in person. In an age when conquest was often characterised by intolerance and violence towards a conquered community, the terms of surrender of Jerusalem, which is known as the Pact of Omar, were generous and humane:
This is a replay of Alexander the Great’s triumphal entrance into Jerusalem.
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
This is what the servant of God, Omar bin Al-Khattab, the Commander of the Faithful, has offered the people of Jerusalem: their security, granting them protection for their selves, their money, their churches, their children, their lowly and their innocent, and the remainder of their people. Their churches are not to be taken, nor are they to be destroyed, nor are they to be degraded or belittled, neither are their crosses or their money, and they are not to be forced to change their religion, nor is any one of them to be harmed.
We can’t miss that he is presenting himself as their Savior.
Omar also ordered that the Al-Aqsa Mosque/Al-Haram Al-Sharif be built on the very place where the Prophet Muhammad had made the Night Journey (Al-Isra’ wal-Mi’raj)…
The Hashemites, or “Bani Hashem” are descendants of…the Prophet Ismail…the son of the Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham)….“Hashem”…was the great-grandfather of the Prophet Muhammad. The Hashemites are thus the direct descendants of the Prophet through his daughter Fatima and her husband Ali bin Abi Talib, who was also the Prophet’s paternal first cousin and the fourth caliph of Islam…
one group (which eventually became the Shiites) felt Muhammad’s successor should be someone in his bloodline, while the other (which became the Sunnis) felt a pious individual who would follow the Prophet’s customs was acceptable.
“The original schism between Islam’s two largest sects was not over religious doctrine. It was over political leadership…”
Just like Christians and Jews.
The great majority — upwards of 85 to 90 percent — of the world’s more than 1.6 billion Muslims are Sunnis…from West Africa to Indonesia…
the Shiites are…in Iran, predominance in Iraq and sizable populations in Syria, Lebanon and Yemen.
A shallow, religion-oriented analysis…dominates…Western thinking about most issues in the Middle East…New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman asserts that the “main issue in the Middle East is the 7th century struggle over who is the rightful heir to the Prophet Muhammad – Shiites or Sunnis…”
Therefore rule from Islam’s holy city Jerusalem.
[E]ight major Crusades occurred between 1096 and 1291 for land in the Middle East.
In 1099 ce, Muslim Jerusalem fell to the European forces of the First Crusade. The devastation caused by the Crusaders is well documented. Meron Benvenisti writes that the Crusaders, drunk with victory, conducted a massacre in the city, such as has seldom been paralleled in the history of war. The troops ran amok through the streets of the city, stabbing everyone they encountered4 (Muslim, Jew and Orthodox Christian alike). The few thousand people remaining from a population which had numbered 40,000 were assembled near the gates and sold into slavery. The Crusaders controlled the city from 1099 to 1187 ce, proclaiming their Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.
In 1187 ce, Salah Al-Din Al-Ayyubi—known in the West as ‘Saladin’—recovered Jerusalem. In contrast to the Crusaders’ slaughter when they conquered Jerusalem, he granted amnesty and free passage to all common Catholics and to the defeated Christian army, as long as they were able to pay a paltry ransom for themselves. Salah Al-Din allowed the native Christians to remain and alowed Jews expelled from Jerusalem by the Crusaders to resettle in the city. Salah Al-Din also restored the rights of pilgrimage to several eastern Christian denominations whom the Crusaders considered heretics.
A change in religion from
- Classical Pagan Rome to
- Roman Catholic under Constantine to
- Eastern Orthodox after the Great Schism
- to Islam
didn’t change the identity of the Fourth Empire any more than changing demographics in the United States changes our essential identity as a nation. Based on Daniel, the essential identifier of the Fourth Empire is not religion, but politics – any nation that controls Jerusalem.
In 1453 Mehmet II “the Conqueror”, took Constantinople, the gateway to Europe, and Islam surged into Christendom.
Like conquerors before him, with the taking of the capitol city Mehmet II also claimed the European title Kayser-i Rûm, i.e. Caesar of Rome, and emperor. All subsequent Sultans of the Ottoman Empire kept Kayser-i Rum as one of their many titles.
The peaceful transition of power to the Ottomans [in 1516] was welcomed by Jerusalem’s dwellers…[Under the Savior] Suleiman the Magnificent…Jew, Christian and Muslim enjoyed freedom of religion and it was possible to find a synagogue, a church and a mosque on the same street.
In 1700, Judah HeHasid led the largest organized group of Jewish immigrants to the Land of Israel in centuries…
Several changes with long-lasting effects on the city occurred in the mid-19th century: their implications can be felt today and lie at the root of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict over Jerusalem. The first of these was a trickle of Jewish immigrants from the Middle East and Eastern Europe. The first such immigrants were Orthodox Jews… others were students, who came with their families to await the coming of the Messiah, adding new life to the local population. At the same time, European colonial powers began seeking toeholds in the city, hoping to expand their influence pending the imminent collapse of the Ottoman Empire. This was also an age of Christian religious revival, and many churches sent missionaries to proselytize among the Muslim and especially the Jewish populations, believing that this would speed the Second Coming of Christ…
The Ottoman Empire was an absolute monarchy during much of its existence. By the second half of the fifteenth century, the sultan sat at the apex of a hierarchical system and acted in political, military, judicial, social, and religious capacities under a variety of titles. He was theoretically responsible only to God and God’s law (the Islamic شریعت şeriat, known in Arabic as شريعة sharia), of which he was the chief executor. His heavenly mandate was reflected in Islamic titles such as “shadow of God on Earth”.
The Islamic ruler was absolutely the equivalent of the Christian ruler.
The title [“Caesar” of Rome (Kayser-i Rûm)] was…a showdown between Turks, Russians and Germans…
Keep in mind these three main claimants as we continue to wander through the maze of intervening history. Names and geographical boundaries constantly shift, but the root identities and destinies don’t change. When we perceive what we are seeing, we find historical validation of the biblical report of the continuous existence of all four empires in the fourth kingdom.
- The Moslem Turks, which today continue to aspire to reclaim the extent and power of the Ottoman Empire, as will be demonstrated as this study proceeds.
- The Western European Roman Catholic Germans who expanded into England then America.
- Russia, the Eastern Orthodox heir of Constantinople and most recognizable political entity of the three.
The continuation, succession and revival of the Roman Empire is a running theme of the history of Europe… Separately from claims of continuation, the view that the Empire had ended has led to various attempts to revive it or appropriate its legacy. In the respective contexts of Orthodox Russia since the 16th century and modern Italy between 1870 and 1945, such attempts have used the vocabulary of a “Third Rome” (the “First Rome” and “Second Rome” being, respectively, Rome in modern Italy and Constantinople in the Byzantine Empire) to convey their assertions of legitimate succession.
In 1547, acknowledging the long-term loss of Constantinople and surrounds to the Ottoman Turks, and in defiance of the European rulers’ claim, the Russian ruler assumed the title of Caesar / Tsar and, supported by the Orthodox Christian Church’s opposition to the Roman Catholic / Universal Church’s expanding power, transferred the seat of the eastern government of the Roman Empire from Constantinople to Moscow as the Third Rome.
“Moscow, Third Rome” is a theological and a political concept which was formulated in the 15th–16th centuries in the Tsardom of Rus. In theology as a political concept, three interrelated and interpenetrating fields of ideas can be found:
- Theology: necessity and inevitability of the unity of the Eastern Orthodox /True Church,
- Social policy: East Slavic territories being historically joined through Christian Eastern Orthodox faith and Slavic culture,
- State doctrine: the Moscow Prince is a supreme ruler and defender of the Christian Eastern Orthodox Church which facilitates the execution of his divine right to rule as God’s representative as an autocrat.
After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, the Tsar’s competing heir to the Eastern Orthodox Byzantine throne, Andreas Palaiologos, found refuge in the West where his title and claim to be a rightful Emperor of Rome was recognized of course by the Christian Western powers opposed to both the Russian and the Moslem claimants. Desperate for living expenses, like Esau he sold his inheritance, including his title and imperial rights, to the French kings, where they gathered dust, then bequeathed them at his death to their greatest rivals for power, the Spaniards.
This officially elevated King Ferdinand, married to Queen Isabella / Jezebel, into a legal Emperor of Rome.
These are the rulers who expanded the Empire’s dominions into the New World after funding Christopher Columbus’ voyages. (Map shows Spanish Empire in red and Portuguese in blue during union of their empires 1581-1640.)
Following the Spanish conquests in the Caribbean, Mexico and Peru, the crown established high courts…and viceroyalties…with the viceroy (vice-king) and the Audiencias the effective administrators of royal policy.
In the early 1700’s the Spanish monarchy passed by inheritance to the House of Habsburg under King Charles I – who just happened to be also the Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V, thereby uniting the eastern and western branches of the European Roman empire into a single Germanic Holy Roman Empire.
in 1806 Napoleon Bonaparte conquered the Germanic Holy Roman Empire’s territories, shown in the map in blue with green allies. He also forced the Spanish king to abdicate, and placed his older brother Joseph Bonaparte on the throne of Spain. This consolidated both East and West branches of the European Roman Empire under Napoleon.
While modestly calling himself Emperor of France, Napoleon identified himself as Emperor of Rome by having himself crowned with both a replica of Charlemagne’s Roman Emperor crown and a Roman laurel wreath. He also conferred on his son the title King of Rome, which is, like the official designation of the heir to the throne of England ,”Prince of Wales,” the official designation of the heir to the Roman Empire.
After Napoleon was frozen out of his bid to incorporate the Russian sector of the Roman empire, then lost the western to the British at the Battle of Waterloo, the Germans reclaimed control of Europe. They bolstered their historical dynastic right by
- retrospectively calling Charlemagne’s first German-centered empire “The First” Reich
- and the renewed German Empire under Kaiser (you get that, right?) Wilhelm “The Second” Reich”. When this was dissolved in World War I by the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm, it was replaced by
- Hitler’s “Third” Reich which fully intended to take over Russia as well. Although Hitler did not call himself Kaiser, the identification of his empire with the two previous empires certainly identified him with the previous emperors / Kaisers. Just as Caesar left republican Rome’s Senate intact, just powerless, likewise Hitler left the Weimar Republic’s Reichstag intact, just gutted.
Lenin’s Russian Revolution of 1917 put an end to the Roman-ov dynasty (yes, that means son or family of the Roman), the title of Caesar / Tzar in Russia, and the role of the Orthodox Church, but not to the role of an Imperator driven to conquer the world through the Comintern.
The trail of hisory inexorably brings us face to face with England as the heir to the Western European Roman Empire at the start of World War I. Hitler’s Third Reich was simply a hopeful heir claiming the name without any of the power or territory.
The British Empire, the Western European iteration of the Fourth Kingdom at that time, defeated and scattered the Eastern Roman Empire’s iteration of the Ottoman Empire during WWI, taking Jerusalem back under Christianity, only Protestant this time.
Today, access to oil drives every significant Western involvement in the Middle East.
Political rivalry drives every significant Middle Eastern involvement in the West.
The British Empire was at its height of world power, evident by its acquisition of the vast majority of the defeated Ottoman Empire after WWI. England, as well as America, had risen to wealth and power through locally discovered oil powering the Industrial Revolution,
However, industry could not be sustained, let alone grown, by petroleum sources limited to those at home. England set out to explore for oil in her colonies abroad, finding exploitable oil fields in Persia / Iran in 1908 and evidence of possible fields along the Persian Gulf border of Arabia. And that’s when the story takes a sharp turn to the right. (That’s a pun in so many ways, but never mind.)
Beginning in 1902 Abdulaziz Ibn Saud had been fighting his way up the political ladder the old fashioned way, uniting regions of Arabia into a single state with his Ikhwan (Arabic for brothers), an Islamic religious militia. Made up of rough-living Bedouins dedicated to the purification and the unification of Islam, cosmopolitan Ottoman society was uprooted, and Wahhabi culture was imposed as compulsory social order. He was so successful in seizing control of much of the Arabian Peninsula that he was able to make a politically advantageous arrangement with the Ottoman Empire during WWI. He therefore did not support the British, but neither did he fight against them.
A rival chieftain, Hussein bin Ali, the sharif of Mecca and ruler of the state of Hejaz, used the opportunity to outbid Abdulaziz for regional power by making an alliance with the British. He recruited and led an Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire on the promise of being rewarded a kingdom stretching from Syria to Yemen on successful conclusion of WWI.
However, as the first mechanized war, WWI had driven home the immense amounts of oil needed, and dramatically altered priorities from sourcing manpower to sourcing oil. Germany’s shortage of oil supplies led in part to their defeat in WWI. Britain’s policy of appeasing Nazi Germany’s expansionism in the 1930’s ended when Germany invaded Poland in 1939 to take control of the Bóbrka Field in Poland, the oldest functional industrial oil field in the world.
Hussein could deliver manpower, but who could deliver oil?
Shortly after the war Abdulaziz Ibn Saud had met with a mining engineer who was convinced that much oil would be found throughout his territory. Just as they would do in the next decade while debating an alliance with Germany, the autocratic British monarchy practiced appeasement while Abdulaziz invaded and incorporated Hussein’s Hejaz. The British recognized Abdul-Aziz’s independent realm with agreed-upon boundaries. When Abdulaziz’ powerful Ikhwan pressed him to continue their jihad into British-held Arab territory he established his political boundaries by massacring the troops who raised him to power.
In return, theBritish granted Abdulaziz Ibn Saud a kingdom within their Empire, thereby providing assurances of protection by the British. Contrary to the declared aims of establishing self-determination of the peoples freed from the Ottoman Empire’s control, Saudi Arabia was not set up as a democracy. Named after the ruling / owning family, Saudi Arabia possesses and controls Mecca and Medina, the two holiest places in Islam, rending the kingdom the highest religious status in the Moslem world.
When in 1938, after years of exploration, vast oil reserves were finally discovered, Middle Eastern political relations were altered forever. In 1940 the Industrial Revolution officially ended. The British Empire had secured the boundless petroleum resources in Saudi Arabia, the world’s largest oil producer controlling oil reserves.
Second only to America’s.
What? You didn’t know that America held the largest oil reserves, the energy resource guaranteeing power?
So why do American consumers keep paying higher prices for gas? Ahh, because American oil is reserved for wartime power.