[I]ntimate relations exist between mathematics and material reality, that counting and categorizing are the currency of durable knowledge, and that empirical study of variegated humanity…can uncover universal truths. The common origins of contemporary epidemiology and social sciences can accordingly be traced to Western Europe in the 14th—16th centuries, when quantification of phenomena…becomes a potent new mode of describing and predicting events of the heavens and earth…
What universal truths on religion are revealed in statistical studies?
The term disease is used here in its broadest sense to mean any impairment (whether psychological, physiological or anatomical) that interferes with a person’s ability to meet the needs of daily living…
Epidemiologists frequently make use of two measurements of disease. The first – the incidence – measures how many people began to suffer from the disease during a particular period of time. The second – the prevalence – measures how many people actually had the disease at a particular time.
The arguments for and against God certainly consider the opposing position to be an impairment.
- incidence – frequency of new occurrences of believers in the growing population
- and prevalence – total number of believers accumulated over time.
In the scientific universe matter came before mind. Mind is an accident of matter. How that happened is not even begun to be explained.
In contrast, religions report that mental activity, e.g. electrical energy, and sound, another form of energy, came before matter.
The article…cited a 1965 poll by Lou Harris finding that 97% of Americans still believed in God…in 2014, that number had fallen to 86%.
In other words, the prevalence – total number in the population – of people who don’t believe in God increased from 3% of the population to 14% of the population.
But, we have to take into consideration that the individuals being questioned had changed in the 49 years between the first and second polls. Assuming the poll only questioned adults, defined as age 18 and above, the youngest member of the second poll would be 67 years old by the time of the second poll, and many would be deceased or incapacitated in some way.
So these figures don’t demonstrate that many of the original individuals being polled had changed their minds. Instead, it demonstrates that the incidence – number of new people who don’t believe in God, had increased.
Statistics support the reality of a condition, such as the COVID pandemic, but not for the facts behind the condition. Statistics simply indicate a need for further research to uncover cause and effect, appropriate response, and, simply put, the truth.
We could frame the research question as Why? What has changed in American society since 1965 to cause American adults to stop believing in God?
Without question, one major change in society has been the technological advances in what is purported to be a purely materialistic scientific methodology for discovering pure knowledge and developing applications for controlling our world.
Putting men on the moon and devising instruments to collect data from far reaches of the universe, and harnessing nuclear power for bombs in war and energy sources in peace has been understandably persuasive. Many people switched sides once America broke through the barriers between heaven and earth and the inner workings of the atom.
As if human accomplishments alone prove that there is no God or gods. That’s not even logical. There can be both.
The reality of religious experiences is substantiated by historic
Religion has been a factor of the human experience from pre-historic to modern times…
There is no culture recorded in human history which has not practiced some form of religion…
Religion, then and now, concerns itself with the spiritual [energizing / life force] aspect of the human condition, gods and goddesses (or a single personal god or goddess), the creation of the world, a human being’s place in the world, life after death, eternity, and how to escape from suffering in this world or in the next.
The fundamental concept to religion as documented throughout the entirely of known history is that, by its very nature, life / energy is incapable of beginning or ceasing existence. We are composed of this hyper dimension, only some of which temporarily took shape as what is perceived as matter.
In other words, the Laws of Thermodynamics reframed in a personal context.
The ultimate “May the Force be with you.”
The reality of a Creator is substantiated by the incidence and prevalence of reports of a Creator from the beginning of known history.
Science and religion agree that in the beginning the cosmos moved from a state of nothingness to the existence of matter. But science has very little to say about this mysterious transition, all of it highly speculative…
By contrast, there was remarkable unanimity among…the sacred texts of the world’s great religions.
- an all-powerful immaterial pre-existent Being
- expressed in four-dimensional constructs as a trinity,
- who created other hyper-dimensional immortal beings, the material universe, and humans,
- and provided mortal beings with a means of attaining immortality,
- in a battle of good against evil.
Ancient religions in all cultures recount the actions of a Creator who brought material substance, life and death / time into existence.
Creation stories are commonly classified into a small number of basic groups, and many individual myths contain two or more elements of these themes. This small grouping is evidence that, although altered in time, most creation myths had their origin from an actual set of events or records.
1. Creation From Nothing. This idea involves the Creator “calling forth into being” the creation that came into existence totally as a result of His will… includes the Navajo and Mayan Creation stories…
2. Creation from Chaos…the producing of a structure from undifferentiated material…the Greek, Chinese, Finnish, Indian, Japanese, and Egyptian creation myths…order was caused to occur as a result of some activity, force, or process. The Popol Vuh tells the creation myth of the Mayan people, in the beginning there was nothingness, then the sky and the sea. One god from each region, Plumed Serpent from the sky and Hurricane from the sea, came together to create the world. Whatever they said was created. Mankind proved unable to properly respect their creators. Hurricane sent monsters to the Earth to destroy them…The Earth then blackened and a continuous rainstorm came. The Aztecs described the creation of male and then female and a catastrophic flood.
3. Emergence Myths. In this category God creates the material ex-nihilo, and then forms or shapes it into useful forms…Good examples include the formation of man from the dust of the earth…ancient African creation myths…hold that “there was nothing before God created the world”…The Navajo Aztecs, and Pueblos all teach all life as well as the first man and woman were created from the earth by God or the gods…Many myths also teach creation through “the word” or the logos…The term “myth” is from the Greek word mythos “which means word in the sense of final authority.” In this category God or gods create through sounds [a form of energy].
4. Separation Myths…darkness once rested upon the heaven and earth until the light and darkness were separated by God…
5. Creation From a Cosmic Egg…a “germ” or some raw material such as water or clay that God created or already existed, and out of which He formed humans, animals, plants, the earth or some other part of the universe….Indian, Phoenician, Egyptian, Orphic, Chinese, and other texts…
6. The…Earth-Divider Myths or where a divine being divides the water by bringing the land up from the sea, permanently separating the two…
In addition, an “enormous number of creation myths….involve the sun, and the life-giving, regenerative properties of light…almost universally identified with primarily creative forces. Everywhere the sun or light plays an important, if not a central role…” in creation.
The term light often refers not only to physical light, but also to knowledge and insight…The importance of light (knowledge and wisdom) is likewise reflected in virtually all…creation stories.
Archeological remains provide even older unwritten information about ancient religious beliefs.
Göbekli Tepe, the oldest human-made sites of worship yet discovered, is a monumental complex built on the top of a rocky mountaintop in current-day Turkey. The site’s original excavator, German archaeologist Klaus Schmidt, described it as the “world’s first temple”. After about 2,000 years it was, inexplicably, buried.
Close to Gobekli Tepe in Anatolia, the inhabitants of housing settlements of Catalhoyuk left behind numerous clay figurines and impressions of phallic, female, and hunting scenes. Here, as in Gobekli Tepe, there is no documentation, so the specifics of religious activities are best determined using Occam’s razor logic rather than speculation. The likelihood is that the same motivations driving later groups are present in this earlier group.
This provides a justifiable deduction that the figures indicate use of magic – access to hyper dimensional sources – to empower four dimensional virility, fertility, and provision of food. This is also supported by common sense, as the basic necessities of survival are food and a pack to support each other in procurement and defense.
This perspective is validated by Hinduism, considered by some to be the oldest religion still practiced today, Archaeologists have found bull and cow motifs, sacred to Hinduism, associated with an ancient civilization inhabiting the area near the Indus River, dating back to the same time as Catalhoyuk.
The end goal of Hinduism is restoring unity with the Creator. This theme is found in virtually all subsequent religions.
3760 BC – 1700 BCInterestingly, the archeological dating of known historical human civilizations coincides with the ancient Hebrew calendar documented in the book of Genesis, as well as the ancient religious concepts shared in common with all cultures.
The first couple created by Ahura Mazda – Mashya and Mashynag – had lived in peace and harmony with all things in the paradise Ahura Mazda had created for them until they listened to the whisperings of Angra Mainyu who convinced them that…Ahura Mazda was their enemy and a deceiver. For doubting their true lord and listening to lies, they were expelled from paradise and condemned to a world of difficulty and strife, but their descendants could still live meaningful and fulfilling lives by remaining loyal to Ahura Mazda.
[Like the Apostle Paul] He was rejected by the priests, his life was threatened, and he was forced to flee his home. He would not stop preaching the new, revealed truth, however, remaining constantly in prayer to receive guidance from Ahura Mazda in how he should proceed. His prayers and questions…would later be committed to writing and form a central section of the Zoroastrian scriptures known as the Avesta…
It rested on five principles:
- The supreme god is the Bringer of Light and Darkness, Ahura Mazda with 101 names / attributes
- Ahura Mazda is all-good.
- His eternal opponent, Angra Mainyu, is all-evil.
- Goodness is apparent through good thoughts, good words, and good deeds.
- Each individual has free will to choose between good and evil.
Ahura Mazda was the uncreated, eternal, and only god, while the many other deities previously worshipped were merely spirits or emanations from the divine.
There is strong internal biblical evidence for dating the book of Job to this time frame. A Zoroastrian may be the young but wise Eli-hu / He is my God in Job’s account.
Hammurabi, [Priest-] King of Babylon reunited Mesopotamia and instituted the Code of Hammurabi, a comprehensive set of laws addressing nearly all aspects of both civil and criminal offenses.
Hammurabi is portrayed receiving the laws directly from Sham-ash the sun god. (a parallel to Moses can be made here). Shamash…is seated on his throne…Hammurabi…makes a powerful authority statement by addressing the god directly…he shows that he has a personal relationship with the gods while mere mortals do not.
- ~1400 BC
the [Mosaic] Covenant Code…depends directly and primarily upon the Laws of Hammurabiand that the use of this source text occurred [a thousand years after Moses] during the Neo-Assyrian period, sometime between 740–640 BCE, when Mesopotamia exerted strong and continuous political and cultural influence over the kingdoms of Israel and Judah…
- a model of literary dependence is the only viable explanation for the work.
- a commentary to the biblical composition from the new theoretical perspective.
- The Covenant Code, too, is an ideological work… a statement symbolically countering foreign hegemony.
How does this new assessment of history hold up to scrutiny?
History is as accurate as the historian recreating it.
And the accuracy of the historian depends upon the accuracy of his or her sources.
And that depends upon how much time the historian has spent, chasing up other sources to corroborate the initial ones.
Note the lack of other primary sources behind the author’s “new model, commentary, and new theoretical perspective.”
Note too, the bias from critiquing only the Mosaic Code. For example, the “new theory” discounts the possibility of divine revelation from YHVH as reported by Moses, but ignores the exact same claims from every other nation’s ruler at that time, specifically by Hammurabi.
Hammurabi didn’t invent law, and his Code was not the only source available to Moses who, after all, “was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians,” (Acts 7:22)
Through a comparative examination of the legal systems and practices of ancient Mesopotamia (including Hammurabi’s Babylon, c. 1700 B.C.), ancient Egypt, ancient Israel, ancient Anatolia (the Hittite Empire, c. 1500 B.C.), ancient Greece and ancient Rome, we will investigate the historical origins of “law” as an idea…We will look at what differentiated the resulting legal systems, and what united them. We will examine not merely the ancient “law in the books”…but also the ancient “law in action” (the performances, rituals and ceremonies that created legal rights and duties in all these proto-literate societies)… emphasis will be placed on developing a broad interdisciplinary perspective on the ancient legal cultures examined…from religion, anthropology, archaeology, literature and communication studies.
The similarities between the Mosaic Code of Law and Hammurabi’s code actually provides proof of Moses’ independence from Hammurabi and their close proximity in time: statistical prevalence and incidence of shared similarities by all nations at that time.
The difference between Moses’ and Hammurabi’s Code is what matters, and that is statistically huge:
- Belief in One Almighty God or many lesser gods.
- Prevalence (continuity of faith) and incidence (new believers added as time passes)
Moses is claimed as a founder by the monotheistic religions of Judaism, Christianity, Islam and Bahai as a prophet of God. His importance is substantiated by the prevalence of these religions even 3,500 years after he authored the foundational first five books of the Jewish Torah and the Christian Bible. Over 50% of world religions base their faith on Mose’s revelations about God.
Where are all the Hammurabians of the world?
The Bible validates that monotheistic religions found throughout history present the true God of Creation and salvation in a passage written well before Christianity or even Judaism had spread “unto the ends of the world.”
“For the scripture saith…the same Lord over all is rich unto all that call upon him...Have they not heard? Yes verily, their sound went into all the earth, and their words unto the ends of the world.” (Romans 10:11-18)
the…many ancient clay tablets that had been dated to long before the time of Abraham…held the key to the original writings of…the Book of Genesis…
most of the old clay tablets had “colophon phrases” at the end; these named the writer or owner of the tablet; they had words to identify the subject, and often some sort of dating phrase…Many of these old records related to family histories and origins, which were evidently highly important to those ancient people…
the book of Genesis consists of a set of tablets, each of which was written by an actual eye-witness to the events described therein. These tablets were finally compiled by Moses…
Tablet Starting Verse Ending Verse Owner or Writer 1 Genesis 1:1 Genesis 2:4a God “the LORD delivered unto [Moses] two tables of stone written with the finger of God;” (Deut 9:10)” 2 Genesis 2:4b Genesis 5:1a Adam 3 Genesis 5:1b Genesis 6:9a Noah 4 Genesis 6:9b Genesis 10:1a Shem, Ham & Japheth 5 Genesis 10:1b Genesis 11:10a Shem 6 Genesis 11:10b Genesis 11:27a Terah 7 Genesis 11:27b Genesis 25:19a Isaac 8 Genesis 25:12 Genesis 25:18 Ishmael, through Isaac 9 Genesis 25:19b Genesis 37:2a Jacob 10 Genesis 36:1 Genesis 36:43 Esau, through Jacob 11 Genesis 37:2b Exodus 1:6 Jacob’s 12 sons
Exodus 1:6, “And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that generation.”…added by Moses, after he inherited all the tablets, and…compiled all these tablets into one long record…during the 40-year wilderness experience…
Despite the loss of the most ancient original records and the relatively late historical date of the extant – currently existing – writings of the Bible, the reflection of its content in other religions provides substantial evidence that the Bible is the original source for spiritual / hyper-dimensional matters.
The Olmecs built the earliest pyramids and temples in Central America. and bequeathed their religion to subsequent civilizations as evidenced in artifacts such as the sky-dragon and the feathered-snake god transformed into the major gods Kukulcan for the Maya and Quetzalcoatl for the Aztecs.
c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BC
Gautama Buddha, founder of Buddhism, teaches that souls do not exist. Existence in this world is considered a suffering experience. The goal of Buddhism is to escape the cycle of rebirth by reaching Nirvana,
This just sounds to me like such a dark view of life with a diagnosable psychiatric condition of nihilism.
At this same period of time Confucius founded the similarly atheistic but completely opposite cheerful view of existence: “The philosophy is based on the belief that human beings are essentially good.
It is estimated that only 0.1% of the world’s population follows Confucianism. Perhaps it is due to widespread personal experience that human beings are not essentially good?
c. 4 BC – c. 30/33 AD
Jesus of Nazareth, the central figure of Christianity based all his claims on the Old Testament / Tanakh, which is all founded on Moses’ writings. Likewise, the authors of the New Testament validated everything they wrote about Jesus Christ by referencing the Old Testament writings.
c. 1 AD
Taoism / Daoism is usually translated as the Way. All things are unified and connected in a Chinese worldview. The Tao is the ultimate creative principle of the universe and all things are unified in the Tao. The pursuit of spiritual immortality is by self-development and being virtuous.
The Sikh faith, a monotheistic religion, is established in India by Guru Nanak, who taught that one must honor God by honoring others and the Earth, God’s creation. The three core pillars of Sikhism can be recognized as equivalent to Moses’ compilation of ancient Hebrew teachings.
- Vaṇḍ Chakkō: A spirit of giving, sharing, and caring for one another is central to Sikhism.
- Kirat Karō: Earning/making a living honestly and speaking the truth at all times.
- Naam Japna: Meditating on God’s name / attributes to live a life of decency and humility.
Sikhs see the temporary distractions of the material world as an illusion, or Māyā. The five qualities of ego, anger, greed, attachment and lust are known as the Five Thieves that rob a person of their ability to realize their oneness with God and creation. Sikhs work to counteract the temptations of these qualities through the Sikh values of service, equality, and seeking justice for all.
Sikhs believe that one’s form on Earth is only a temporary vessel for the eternal soul on its journey toward God.
Baha’i Faith The Báb (1819–1850), considered a herald like John the Baptist, taught that God would soon send a prophet in the same way of Jesus or Muhammad. Baháʼu’lláh (1817–1892) who in 1863 claimed to be that prophet, taught that religion is revealed in an orderly and progressive way by Manifestations of God, who are the founders of major world religions throughout history. At the heart of Baháʼí teachings is the goal of a unified world order that ensures the prosperity of all nations, races, creeds, and classes. Letters written by Baháʼu’lláh have been assembled into a canon of Baháʼí scripture.
The Mosaic Code compiles and documents the history of creation, the introduction of death, and the Creator God’s direct instructions for achieving a harmonious relationship with him, other humans, and all creation.
- Choose the light, the Singularity, over the dark, the Destroyer.
- Identify with the Creator in his actions which can be reduced to “be productive, not destructive.”
- When a mortal’s relationship with the ultimate Good is broken it can be restored by a way provided by the Singularity:
- believe God’s promise to redeem his Creation currently subjected to destruction / death,
- expressed through acceptance of God’s authority as Creator and one’s own failures to meet God’s standards of likeness to him, required for acceptance has his immortal son,
- proven by faith in, ergo acting on, the process of substituting another’s death for one’s own.
- Resurrection to immortality in the World to Come – a new heaven and a new earth following the implosion of this irreversibly entropic degrading universe – is achieved through unity with the Singularity
The ability of any religion to restore a relationship with Almighty Creator God for life ever after lies in its alignment with God’s core instructions on how to do so. And that begins with trusting his ability to maintain the life of one’s soul by faith in his claim that he created it in the first place.
This brings us to the essential research concept of provenance.
- Origin – derivation of a source
- Source –
The history of ownership of a valued object, or work of art or literature
The provenance for any religious text or belief can only be derived from its Author Being the Origin of the Beginning of Everything.
Only the biblical account of Creation establishes a thorough social scientific basis for trust with.
- Supernatural proof of divine provenance
- Hundreds of prophecies coming true over long passages of time.
- None of its scientific or historical records have ever been proven wrong.
- Statistical proof by Incidence
- Its teachings have been accepted throughout all historical time and cultures.
- All other religions have a human origin.
- Statistical proof by Prevalence
- Its writings have been preserved for thousands of years despite many attempts to destroy them.
- Most other religions have an end.
- Statistical proof via internal reliability
- Consistent reports in multiple documents written by multiple authors in diverse cultures separated by geography and thousands of year,
- Statistical proof via external validity
- Multiple disciplines in the physical sciences are revealing that the biblical version of creation is scientific, not imaginative.
- An entire literary discipline devoted to discrediting every book in the Bible from Beginnings to The End demonstrate the influence the Bible exerts over those who read it.
- Banning or severely restricting ownership of a Bible by some autocratic governments, provides proof that this Word is more powerful than the sword.
- Supernatural proof of divine provenance
The Written Word Is The Final Authority
In the medical and legal professions where life and death hang in the balance, before a diagnosis like “cancer” or a verdict of “guilty” can be made, the evidence on which the determination has been made has to be documented in writing and presented as proof.
The Bible follows, even more stringently, the same written documentation process. Significantly, the God of the Bible does not expect humans to take anything on blind trust in a revelation – even by himself.
“If I bear witness of myself, my witness is not true…Search the scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and they are they which testify of me.” (John 5:31-39)
“we have not followed cunningly devised fables..but were eyewitnesses of his majesty…this voice which came from heaven we heard, when we were with him in the holy mount. We have also a more sure word of prophecy…the scripture / written word.” (II Peter 2:16-21)
“I will come near to you to judgment; and I will be a swift witness
- against the sorcerers,
- and against the adulterers,
- and against false swearers,
- and against those that oppress
- the hireling in his wages,
- the widow,
- and the fatherless,
- and that turn aside the stranger from his right,
- and fear not me, saith the LORD of hosts…
For I am the LORD, I change not…
- and a book of remembrance was written before him for them that feared the LORD, and that thought upon his name / attributes,[ i.e. Creator, Owner so the owner, sustainer, and boss of it all.]
- And they shall be mine, saith the LORD of hosts, in that day when I make up my jewels…
Then shall ye…discern between the righteous and the wicked,
- between him that serveth God
- and him that serveth him not.” (Malalchi 3)