132) The Number Of The Beast Rev 13

The significance of 666 is that the number 6 is the number of man…Bible scholar John Walvoord [a Dispensationalist] says in The Prophecy Knowledge Handbook…“Most of the speculation on the meaning of this number is without profit or theological significance.” Man was created on Day 6 of creation…The number 6 is one short of the number 7. 7 is the number of God’s perfection…When you triple the 6 and make it 666, it…is a way of adding emphasis to a declaration. Just as the angels cry out in worship to God by saying “Holy, Holy, Holy”…God is saying to the Antichrist, you are just a 6, 6, and 6. A man who thinks he’s a god.

A high school teacher grading an essay would red line the following inconsistencies in that author’s arguments.

Following is another interpretation. No worries, I’m not going to cover the multitude of interpretations, just provide a sampling.

This beast is a symbol of the worldwide political system, which rules over “every tribe and people and tongue and nation.” (Revelation 13:7) The name 666 identifies the political system as a gross failure in God’s sight.

Again, this interpretation by the Jehovah’s Witnesses is derailed by failure to maintain consistency with the examined document’s massive body of evidence that the beast is a living being who is not identified by existing human knowledge in any form of biological taxonomy.

When we collate historical facts contemporary with John’s depiction of the the Beast, it is easy to recognize him as some sort of hybrid Seed of the Serpent / Dragon, part human and part spirit of Satan, who claims to be born of of a human woman and conceived of a god, destined to be the Savior of the world, but in reality wreaks destruction. See the post Seed of the Serpent for greater detail.

The following analysis is reliable within the context of the Bible, is validated by well-known cultural, historical and scientific evidence, and, most of all, is corroborated within the Bible.

the infamous number 666, which is rather cryptically referred to as the “number of the beast” in the New Testament, and has more recently become known as the number of the Antichrist…

As the boys from Numberphile explain, 666…reveals something pretty incredible about the way the Bible was originally written…

Put simply, 666 is being used as a code, and not a particularly subtle one, if you were alive and literate at the time of the New Testament. 

e7de12fdaef9e8194a7c65cdf5533a99This text was originally written in ancient Greek, where numbers are written as letters, as they are in Hebrew – the other main language of the original Biblical texts…

(In our modern culture we use Roman numerals, which also uses letters as numbers, but unlike ancient Greek and Hebrew, only a select few.)

“Now what this means is that every word also has a numerical value…”

in Chapter 13 of The Book of Revelation, it reads: “Let the one with understanding reckon the meaning of the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man. His number is 666…”

the English word “reckon” comes from the Greek word for “calculate” or “solve”…

When you actually look at the original text, you’ll see that in this passage, the letters of 666 are actually written in Hebrew, which places a higher significance on numbers meaning words and words meaning numbers than ancient Greek. The writer was very clearly trying to tell us something.

And sure enough, if you translate the Hebrew spelling of 666, you actually spell out Neron Kesar – the Hebrew spelling of Nero Caesar.

It wasn’t until the 4th century AD that the numbers 500-900 were given their own letters, a form of the previous letters used. Also, there are no vowels in Hebrew, just jots and tittles and regional dialects.

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Therefore, in the 1st century John wrote the number 600 as a combination of letters indicating 100, 200 and/or 300, and could as well have written 666 as any combination of numbers adding up to 666.

N/50 + R/200 + N/50 = 300 = Neron

K/100 + H/5 + A/1 + S/60 + R/200 = 366 = KHSR

Even if you take the alternative spelling of the number of the beast, which has been found in several early Biblical texts as being written 616, you can translate that out as being Nero Cesar [leaving out the H/5]

“No one wants to write a book under imperial persecutions saying, ‘The root of all evil is Nero Caesar.’ You’re not going to spell that out.”

Nero had died by the time John wrote Revelation, but Nero had been the cruel persecutors of the followers of Yeshua Messiah at the time that Paul’s letter to the Thessalonians was in circulation.

John’s statement “Here is wisdom” doesn’t mean a revelation from God, but the ordinary wisdom which is acquired by being attentive and learning from experience, and summed up in maxims and proverbs, the sciences, the art of interpreting dreams which humanly is simply making connections to the dreamer’s fears.

His statement “Let him that hath understanding” means the God-given capacity of each person to reason and  reflect on existing information.

His instruction to count the number of the beast includes, but goes beyond, mathematically compute, calculate, reckon. Just as we currently use these terms, the Bible defines theses terms as reasoning and reflection in Luke 14:28. Our own current maxim to “count” on someone or the cost means to take into ac-count the consequences on yourself of a dependence on a person or choice of course of action. In Greek culture it also meant counting the ballots determining who won election, with black stones indication rejection and white stones indicating acceptance into a government post.

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John was pointing his readers to Paul’s earlier identification about forty years earlier. This would have been quickly grasped by the people in that culture and current events who had read Paul’s letters, that is to say, the first two generations of believers.

“be not soon shaken in mind, or be troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by letter as from us, as that the day of Christ is at hand. Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away / apostacy first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition; Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, shewing himself that he is God. Remember ye not, that, when I was yet with you, I told you these things? And now ye know what withholdeth that he might be revealed in his time.

For the mystery of iniquity doth already work: only he [the Holy Spirit] who now letteth [another word for withholdeth] will let , until he be taken out of the way [by such dire martyrdom of God’s people through whom he works].

And then shall that Wicked be revealed…Even him, whose coming is after the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders.” (II Thessalonians 2:2-9)

“And I…saw a beast rise up out of the sea [of outer space, see the post The Beast From The Sea],

  • having seven heads and
  • ten horns, and
  • upon his horns ten crowns, and
  • upon his heads the name of blasphemy..

And he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his name, and his tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven. And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them: and power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations. And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.” (Revelation 13:1-8)

Seven Heads

head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state in its unity and legitimacy…the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead (such as the British Monarch) or concurrently the head of government and more (such as the president of the United States, who is also commander-in-chief of the US Armed Forces).

Hitler was the supreme leader of the Axis Powers consisting of ten heads of state of Germany, Italy, Japan, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Croatia and Finland.

Likewise, the totality of the Roman Empire was subdivided into provinces based on territorial absorption into the Empire. Obviously there were different administrative imperatives based on the the relationship of submission or chronic rebellion to Rome’s authority, value of resources, etc. You don’t see American forces expending military resources in impoverished Sudan like we do in oil-rich Iraq.

Likewise there were two basic types of provinces.

  1. Public provinces were managed by the Senate, which voted governors into annual terms.
  2. Imperial provinces were headed by imperial appointees to indefinite terms, rich provinces, like enviable embassadorial posts, granted to supporters to whom the emperor owed favor. The imperial provinces were further broken down by the presence, or not, of a military garrison.
    1. A militarized zone was ruled by a praefecti, a military officer under legatus Augusti pro praetore (literally: “envoy of the emperor – acting for the praetor”), who was the combined head of the provincial administration, chief judicial officer and commander-in-chief of all military forces based in the province (legions and auxiliaries).
    2. A province that had been absorbed through an alliance, such as Judea under Herod, and did not require military occupation was ruled by a procuratore. or praefecti. These were men of the second highest Senate rank, equestrian rank, the Roman knights, whose appointments were based on their support of the Emperor.

During Nero’s reign, out of a total 36 provinces, 10 were headed by procuratores or praefecti.

“From the reign of the emperor Vitellius, who ruled in the year 69, onward, these equestrian procurators often served as heads of the great ministries of the Roman government. The most important ministries were finance, correspondence and petitions, equivalent to the American roles of Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of State, and Vice President who is also the President of the Senate empowered to break a tie in proposals / petitions.

jherrman-roman-republic-in-43bc

Ten Horns

“The fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces. And the ten horns out of this kingdom are ten kings that shall arise: and another shall rise after them; and he shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue three kings. And he shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.” (Daniel 7:23-25)

OK, so doesn’t this state categorically that the beast is a kingdom, not an individual? Semantics.

quote-i-am-the-state-louis-xiv-114883

Autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power over a state is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control…

In earlier times, the term autocrat was coined as a favorable description of a ruler, having some connection to the concept of “lack of conflicts of interests” as well as an indication of grandeur and power. This use of the term continued into modern times, as the Russian Emperor was styled “Autocrat of all the Russias” as late as the early 20th century. In the 19th century, Eastern and Central Europe were under autocratic monarchies within the territories of which lived diverse peoples.

“a ram which had two horns: and the two horns were high; but one was higher than the other, and the higher came up last. I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward; so that no beasts might stand before him, neither was there any that could deliver out of his hand; but he did according to his will, and became great…The ram…having two horns are the kings of Media and Persia.” (Daniel 8:3)

“the ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings, which have received no kingdom as yet; but receive power as kings one hour with the beast.” (Revelation 17:12)

A current conceptual fit for the ten kings under an autocracy can be found in the United Nations, where ten leaders are fully subject to the main power.

The Security Council, the United Nations’ principal crisis-management body, is empowered to impose binding obligations on the 193 UN member states to maintain peace. The council’s five permanent and ten elected members meet regularly to assess threats to international security, addressing issues that include civil wars, natural disasters, arms control, and terrorism…

The Security Council has five permanent members—China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States—collectively known as the P5. Any one of them can veto a resolution. The council’s ten elected members, which serve two-year, nonconsecutive terms, are not afforded veto power…

the United States was among the powers that prevented a robust UN response in Rwanda. Despite alarming reports received by the council in 1994, it declined to respond as an estimated eight hundred thousand people were killed in a genocide committed against ethnic Tutsis.

So since horns have always symbolized kingship, the real question is not “what do horns symbolize?”, but “why do horns symbolize kingship?”

Because horns signify the God / god who is the source of the king’s power.

“God came from Teman, and the Holy One from mount Paran. Selah. His glory covered the heavens, and the earth was full of his praise. And his brightness was as the light; he had horns coming out of his hand: and there was the hiding of his power.” (Habakkuk 3)

“this is the blessing, wherewith Moses the man of God blessed the children of Israel before his death…of Joseph he said, Blessed of the Lordlet the blessing come upon the head of Joseph…his horns are like the horns of unicorns: with them he shall push the people together to the ends of the earth.” (Deuteronomy 33)

“And I beheld, and, lo, in the midst of the throne and of the four beasts, and in the midst of the elders, stood a Lamb as it had been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God sent forth into all the earth.” (Revelation 5:6)

So of course the Adversary has his counterfeit.

Gerald Gardner says (in 1959’s The Meaning of Witchcraft) that The Horned God is an Under-god, a mediator between an unknowable supreme deity and the people.

Horns have always been an important symbol throughout history and throughout every culture but now this symbolism is appearing more and more in mainstream pop culture. It makes you wonder “why now?” and what’s going on…To really understand we have to go back through time and look at what’s behind all the symbolism.

According to DNA studies, all cows, bulls, and oxen…originated from the now extinct, wild aurochs…enormous and fearsome animal that roamed all of Europe and Asia for thousands of years…The Aurochs cow (female) and bull (male) were so connected with the creation of the universe [emphasis added here and below] that the first two runes in the Elder Futhark are dedicated to them…and the 24 runestaves of the Elder Futhark is said to be, when understood, the secret to the entire sequence of the universe. The Egyptian Goddesses Isis and Hathor both are depicted with cow horns connecting them with creation…

One of the most notorious ancient gods Moloch, was a bull horned god worshiped by the ancient Canaanites, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, and most of the Eastern Mediterranean. His name has a root that in the Semitic languages means “king”…The god Enlil [Adam, Son of God] was also considered the bull of heaven and his son, Sin, the moon god, rode on a winged bull. You can see how all this symbolism gets distorted over the course of history. The difference between good and bad really depended on who’s team you were on.   

The first one that we have a written record of is Enki [Sumerian Lucifer], the master shaper of the world, god of wisdom, and all magic. He is usually seen with the horned crown of divinity...Other important gods who had these horns were the Egyptian, Ra AmmonOsiris, Utu, sometimes Zeus, Mercury, Jupiter, Odin alexander1.peoplegodswithhorns2Alexander the Great…made a visit to the Oracle of Ammon in the Libyan Desert, and supposedly, the oracle told him he was the son of Ammon/Zeus, and afterwards he became known as the “two horned one”. Coins minted after this time show him wearing the “Horn of Ammon” crown…Alexander really believed that the oracle was right and that he was a god, as we know that he founded a dynasty on this claim…Cleopatra of Egypt, later claimed to be the goddess Isis because she was a descendant of Alexander and therefore of the royal line of the gods. We can clearly see that horns in the ancient world were considered a sign of kingship, divinity, and wisdom. Even as the “Emperor Card” in the tarot shows the emperor seated with horned rams’ heads on the four corners of his thrown signifying his divine power brought into the physical realm
maj04

remember the truth about who and what we are and how powerful we are. That truth is that as humans we are all descendants of gods and most of what we were taught to believe are lies specifically engineered to make us forget who we really are. The purpose of demonizing the culture of our ancestors…is all part of the plan to make sure that we never wake up. Our ancestors have left us with all the pieces of the puzzle, and now all we have to do is figure out how to put them together.

With this background in mind, we should be able to recognize that every culture in which the 1st Century Jewish scriptures were preached proclaiming that Yeshua haMessiah of Nazareth was the rightful king of Israel naturally also accepted him as the son of the Jewish God YHVH Creator, and therefore also easily accepted him as one prophesied to be the Savior of the world. He was simply one of many claimants – importantly – within the Roman dominions. What made Yeshua different, and more appealing, was his message of equality and spiritual empowerment of even the lowest members of society, not to mention the legally admissible proof by witnesses of his resurrection, ergo real power over death.

We should also be able to transfer the concept of the Holy Spirit residing in and controlling multiple individuals whose bodies die but whose souls remain connected to the source of life Spirit with the identical pagan concept of the single spirit of the god Enki / Ammon / Zeus inhabiting and controlling a series of individuals whose bodies die but whose souls, now immortal through the god’s spirit, ascend to some hereafter place while the god moves on to his next partner.

Julius Caesar allowed himself to be worshiped as a god…his successor Augustus…is known in some inscriptions  as  CAESAR DIVI FILIUS, Son of God, that is, Son of eternal Caesar.  Oaths were taken on the divine spirit of the emperor. His image was publicly adored. Worship of the image was a regular military duty.   Caligula was the first emperor to demand to be worshiped, he demanded that citizens everywhere bow to his statue.  Nero also claimed to be divine…As Augustus had been Zeus incarnate, so Nero was Apollo incarnate. Even Seneca called him as the long-awaited savior of the world.

Even though Nero was dead when John wrote Revelation, “in the eastern provinces of the Empire…a popular legend arose that Nero had not died and would return. At least three leaders of short-lived, failed rebellions presented themselves as “Nero reborn” to enlist popular support.”

In any case, the Caesars in the first century Roman empire were certainly understood to be one continuous dynastic succession, signifying themselves as the rightful heir to Julius Caesar by taking his family name Caesar.

So let’s count.

theromanemperorsofthefirstcentury_p182

“the beast…

    • hath the seven heads
    • and ten horns
    • was, and is not; and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit, and go into perdition:

And here is the mind which hath wisdom.

    • The seven heads are seven mountains, for which Rome is famous
    • And there are seven kings:
    • five are fallen [when John, writing in 96 AD, added on to Paul’s previous identification of #1 Nero]
      • #2 Galba – successor to Nero
      • #3 Otho
      • #4 Vitellius
      • #5 Vespasian
      • #6 Titus
    • and one is at the time John was writing Revelation
      • #7 Domitian
    • and the other is not yet come
      • #8 the beast that was [as Nero], and is not [as Nero any longer], even he is the eighth, and is of the seven [as Domitian], and goeth into perdition. 

By working backwards from the Caesar who “is” at the time John wrote what was most definitely as much a current-day letter to believers as Paul’s epistles, we find that John begins his list, not with Augustus or Nero, but with Nero’s successor. John is updating Paul’s previous identification of Nero as the “mystery of iniquity” who incarnates in a succession of rulers. John’s readers in 96 AD were, like ourselves, more familiar with more recent history and would more easily make a connection between a contemporary ruler and the ruler to come.

So between Paul and John we’ve been given the identification of the beast that is to come as

  • Nero
  • one of the seven who ruled in succession for 28 years between 68-96 AD.
  • who reincarnates as the eighth.

Nero has become one of the most infamous men who ever lived.” His reign from 54-68 AD was marked by personal debauchery and extravagant spending that left the empire in dire straits.

  • He was elevated to power at the age of 16 or 17 when his mother Agrippina poisoned his stepfather the Emperor Claudius Caesar, whose own personal life was marked with multiple incestuous and tumultuous marriages. While Agrippina was married to Claudius she had become a powerful woman, having even been voted the title Augusta / Goddess by the Senate. On the ascension of her son Nero she took total control of the empire, until Nero had her assassinated by government forces, with the approval of the Senate.
    •  I saw a woman sit upon a scarlet coloured beast, full of names of blasphemy…And the ten horns which thou sawest upon the the beast…shall hate the whore, and shall…burn her with fire.” (Revelation 17:1, 17)
  • He would be considered a serial killer today. While adultery, divorce and remarriage were common among the Roman elite, Nero’s exploits were exceptional.
    • He married his stepsister Claudia Octavia in 53 AD, making a double family connection to become Emperor Claudius’ heir, then killed her.
    • He killed his stepbrother Britannicus, Claudius’ son and rightful heir.
    •  He takes Poppaea, the wife of his friend and the future Emperor Otho, as his mistress while married to Claudia, then three years after marrying her kicks her to death while she was pregnant.
    • Shortly after he had a young freeman named Sporus castrated because he bore an uncanny resemblance to Poppaea Sabina. He married him, and paraded him in public dressed as Empress. At the same time Nero drove a man to commit suicide so that he could legally marry the man’s wife, Statilia Messalina.
  • He instituted the first imperially supervised and wide-spread persecution of Christians in 64 AD after falsely blaming them for a catastrophe.
    • “A beast having ten horns…And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them: and power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations.” (Revelation 13:1,7)
    • By 65 AD he kills anyone suspected of treason
    • 67 AD he sends Vespasian to Judea to quell the First Jewish Revolt

for the most part he used his position simply to gratify his own personal pleasures. His nocturnal rioting in the streets was a scandal as early as 56, but the emergence of real brutality in Nero can be fixed in the 35-month period between the putting to death of his mother at his orders in 59 and his similar treatment of his wife Octavia in June 62…

Seeing that he could do what he liked without fear of censure or retribution, Nero began to give rein to inordinate artistic pretensions. He fancied himself not only a poet but also a charioteer and lyre player, and in 59 or 60 he began to give public performances; later he appeared on the stage, and the theatre furnished him with the pretext to assume every kind of role. To the Romans these antics seemed to be scandalous breaches of civic dignity and decorumBeginning about 63, he also developed strange religious enthusiasms and became increasingly attracted to the preachers of novel cults…

Taking advantage of the fire’s destruction, Nero…began building a prodigious palace—the Golden House—which…would have covered a third of Rome… 

revolt spread and the legions made Galba emperor. The Senate condemned Nero to die a slave’s death: on a cross and under the whip. The Praetorian Guard, his palace guard, abandoned him…he stabbed himself in the throat with a dagger…

the revolts his misrule provoked sparked a series of civil wars that for a time threatened the survival of the Roman Empire and caused widespread misery.

John tells us that the beastly spirit inhabiting Nero reincarnates in one of the seven, i.e Galba through Domitian. We can immediately eliminate Galba, Otho and Vitellius since they succeeded each other only for a few months at a time during a year of civil war from which Vespasian emerged the victor.

After winning victories in the invasion of Britain, in 67 Vespasian was appointed by Nero in 69 to the command of a legionary army to crush the Jewish rebellion in Judaea. “At its height, Roman legionaries were viewed as the foremost fighting force in the Roman world…As legionaries moved into newly conquered provinces, they helped Romanize the native population and helped integrate the disparate regions of the Roman Empire into one polity. They enlisted in a legion for 25 years of service.”

In other words, the first permanent Roman occupying military force garrisoned in Judea was sent by Nero.

The significance of this action will be detailed below in this post. Bear in mind, Vespasian was merely following orders, he wasn’t the Godfather. In fact, on Nero’s death in June 68 he turned over the fighting to his son and heir Titus, and fought his way to becoming Emperor. Albeit, it was during Vespasian’s reign that the siege of Jerusalem was broken, the Temple destroyed, and thousands of Jews slaughtered and enslaved.

This makes for a worthwhile animated debate, but I’m going to put my white stone on Vespacian’s second son and second heir Domitian as the Neroic spiritual successor. “Domitian’s government exhibited strong authoritarian characteristics. Religious, military, and cultural propaganda fostered a cult of personality, and by nominating himself perpetual censor, he sought to control public and private morals.”

Domitian took the title “lord and god”and ordered people to confess he was “lord and god” as a test of loyalty (Suetonius, The Lives of the Caesars, Book 8: Domitian 13)…Dio Cassius (Roman History 67.14) refers to Domition exiling a Flavius Clemens and his wife, Flavia Domitilla for “atheism.”  Atheism is the charge made against those who drifted into “things Jewish…” 

It was during the reign of Domitian when the imperial cult became a factor in unifying the empire in Asia Minor. The provincial cult allowed the Roman network of social obligations to be extended to virtually the whole population.  If you lived within the empire, then you were a social client of the Emperor and owed him supreme allegiance.  It is not hard to see, therefore, the struggle which Christians in the late first century would have showing allegiance to Rome – if that allegiance required worship of the Emperor, then the Christian must refuse or compromise their faith.

In his The Twelve Caesars Suetonius claimed that Domitian was not evil to begin with; however, greed and fear of assassination made him cruel...The emperor saw himself as an absolute ruler and took pride in being called master and god: “dominus et deus…” The Senate was almost stripped entirely of its power and his paranoia led to the execution of both senators and imperial officers for the most trivial of offences. Out of jealousy, he had Sullustius Lucullus, governor of Britannia, executed for naming a new type of lance after himself and he recalled Agricola, a victorious general in Britain because he became too popular.

His paranoia led him to take extreme measures such as employing informers…he ordered interrogators to cut off the hands (or scorched the genitals) of prisoners…He executed another niece’s husband Flavius Clemons on the charge of atheism because he was sympathetic to the plight of the Roman Jews…

a group of conspirators…hacked the emperor to death. He was only forty-four years old…On hearing of his death the Senate was overjoyed. Suetonius wrote, “The Senators, on the other hand, were delighted and thronged to denounce Domitian in the House with bitter and insulting cries. Then, seeking for ladders, they had his images and the votive shields engraved with his likeness, brought smashing down….”

Most significantly, John’s identification of a Caesar as the Antichrist identifies him to future generations of readers. He is the ruler of the current manifestation of the Fourth Empire.

Spirit beings have had ample opportunity throughout history to maintain a foothold in governments world-wide for direct control. Their prime directive? Permanent war to wipe out humanity. They have had “boots on the ground”, hiding in plain sight, all along, accomplishing their will behind the scenes with their human allies.

Consider how the CIA operates.

Despite it’s championing of freedom, the CIA’s true objective has always been imperialist in nature. Whether oil in Iran or bananas in Guatemala, the U.S. has a material interest in every country in whose affairs it has meddled.

In order to meet its goals, the CIA recruits influential, intellectual and charismatic personalities. The agency also resorts to threats, kidnapping, torture, enforced disappearances and assassinations. The organization incites violence, uprisings and military rebellion, and causes economic chaos and misery to the people through scarcity of basic foods and so on.

The CIA has been exposed on a number of occasions through documented evidence, leaks of information and whistleblowing by active and former agents.

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