6) Dating: The Stones Cry Out

[In 2015] the world said hello to Homo naledi, a new species of ancient human discovered in South Africa’s Rising Star cave… at least 15 individual skeletons—one of the richest hauls of hominid fossils ever uncovered.

But one significant problem clouded the excitement over the discovery: The team doesn’t know how old the fossils are…Everyone from professional paleontologists to interested members of the public raised the same question: Why hadn’t the team dated the fossils yet?

The simple answer is: Because dating fossils is really difficult.


A closer view of the 250kg British bomb that was lodged in the ground at the site where workers were digging

There are two techniques for dating…: relative and absolute dating.

Absolute dating represents the absolute age of the sample before the present. Historical documents and calendars can be used to find such absolute dates…

Numerous maps discovered in the past are clear indications that the story told today by scholars is incomplete…


Zeno Map. Published around 1380…depicts Greenland free of glaciers, meaning that somehow, someone charted it prior to the Ice Age.

Hacı Ahmet's Map of the World: A complete and perfect map describing the whole world Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons

The Hadji Ahmed map published in 1559. A complete and perfect map…accurate delineations of the western coast of Northern America and Antarctica…a land bridge connection Siberia and Alaska, indicating it originated from a time when the bridge was still present.

King Jaime World Chart…created in 1502…depicts parts of the Sahara Desert with fertile land, huge lakes, rivers and what appear to be ancient cities.


The Oronce Finé World Map created in 1534…displays features of Antarctica…rivers, valleys, and coastlines while also depicting the approximate location of what is the South Pole today.

A presentation by the American Chemical Society in 2016:

The “Radiocarbon Revolution”

In 1946, Willard Libby proposed an innovative method for dating organic materials by measuring their content of carbon-14, a newly discovered radioactive isotope of carbon…this method provides objective age estimates for carbon-based objects that originated from living organisms…

there is significant uncertainty in carbon dating…

  • First…the proportions of C-14 in the atmosphere in historic times is unknown….the atmospheric ratio is known to vary over time…
  • various plants have differing abilities to exclude significant proportions of the C-14 in their intake. This varies with environmental conditions as well…An animal that ingested plants with relatively low C-14 proportions would be dated older than their true age.

The…method is far less predictive of age than is commonly supposed, especially for older samples.

Radioactive carbon-14…used to analyze an organic material, such as wood, seeds, or bones, to determine a date of the material’s growth….has its limits…Therefore, radiocarbon dates need to be calibrated with other dating techniques to ensure accuracy…

Dendrochronology, founded in the late 1800s and early 1900s, allowed scientists to mark exact calendar dates for each ring…

Long tree-ring sequences have been developed throughout the world...An extensive tree-ring sequence from the present to 6700 BC was developed in Arizona using California bristlecone pine, some of which are 4900 years old, making them the oldest living things on earth.

This provides scientific validation of the biblical model of earth’s living history beginning about 6,000 years ago.

From the earliest agricultural villages through the early modern era, people have used clay vessels for almost every sort of activity…

Pottery also offers analytical evidence for dating, production and exchange through an array of scientific techniques, including Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, X-Ray Fluorescenceand petrographic thin-section. More than a century of continuous excavation and study have resulted in a gold-mine of data—stylistic, stratigraphic, petrographic and elemental.

Earthenware vessels of different periods on display at Archaeological and Ethnographic Museum in Turkey from archeological sites estimated to date back to about 5,000 BC.

Relative Dating

Relative dating stems from the idea that…objects closer to the surface are more recent in time relative to items deeper in the ground…

Relative dating can be determined through comparing finds in carefully mapped strata.

One of the world’s oldest landfills was recently uncovered in Jerusalem….Through a systematic excavation of this landfill, Tel Aviv University archaeologist Yuval Gadot and his team have been able to shed light on Jerusalem during a particularly tumultuous chapter of its history—when Rome ruledthe Temple stood, and Jesus preached.


Stratigraphic chronologies: Context in Archeology – Museum of Ontario Archeology

Several problems arise with the use of stratification for dating. Rodents, for example, can create havoc in a site by moving items from one context to another. Natural disasters like floods can sweep away top layers of sites to other locations.

Nonetheless, relative dating is paleontology’s basis for dating fossils .

Fossils from the Koobi Fora Geologic Formation of the Lake Turkana Basin, Kenya

This diagram shows a selection of rock layers, or stratigraphic columns, from the Koobi Fora geologic formation on the eastern shore of Lake Turkana in Kenya. This area is a ridge of sedimentary rock where researchers have found more than 10,000 fossils, both human and other hominins, since 1968. These fossils aid the scientific investigation of human evolution.

Lake Turkana has a geologic history that favored the preservation of fossils…

All lakes, rivers, and streams carry sediment such as soil, sand, and volcanic matter…This process…slowly added layers…Over time the sediment solidified into rock. Bones of ancient humans, our hominin ancestors, and other animal species were buried in the sediment, and eventually became fossilized and preserved in the rocks.

National Geographic is clearly a proponent of Uniformitarianism with its explanation of “slowly”, “over time”, “eventually”. But as the previous post details and the following article summarizes, Uniformitarianism has been proven to be wrong. Only catastrophes create the circumstances required to transform organic materials to fossilized stone. The reason is obvious – organic material quickly decomposes when exposed to the elements.

The most common catastrophe is flood waters. The other options are

  • amber – popularized in Jurassic Park for encasing insects,
  • volcanic ash – Fossils from the historic Pompeii catastrophe provide excellent examples of this process,
  • ice, which is technically a form of water. Interestingly, two of the animals found in Siberia are known to have choked to death on mud before being flash-frozen. And technically, frozen remains are not fossils.

Mammoths are some of the most famous creatures of the Ice Age and rightly so...they continued living until at around 1700 BC, the same time the Bronze Age began in China, the Indus Valley Civilisation collapsed, and Hammurabi lived and died…

This one…lived 39,000 years ago…

This one, along with all the other organic specimens, was dated by the carbon-14 method which is known to be flawed.

The same skin of a mammoth was sent to two different labs for carbon datingthe results differed in each test, in one case the results varied by more than 14,000 years. This test exposed error rates as high as more than 32%, which of course is well beyond any meaningful scientific perimeter. In the end, scientists pick the dates from their tests which best fit their evolutionary guesstimates of age.

Hundreds of large mammal species disappeared during the transition from the last glaciation to the present interglacial period, from around 50,000 to 5,000 years ago…

We are using large compilations of carefully audited radiocarbon dates for each mammal species to help us reconstruct their Late Quaternary distributions.

Note the excessive explanation:

  1. large
  2. compilations
  3. carefully audited

This indicates awareness that radiocarbon data is worthless in terms of accuracy, only used to bolster an a priori biased Evolutionary model with Uniformitarianism.

Fossils are the preserved remains, or traces of remains, of ancient organisms. Fossils are not the remains of the organism itself! They are rocks.

Fossils are formed in many different ways

  1. Permineralisation...when dissolved minerals carried by ground water fill up space inside the cells of plants and animals
  2. Impression fossils form when the organism’s original bone or tissue is removed by processes that occur after burial, such as ground water flow
  3. Amber…
  4. Soft tissues…in special circumstances that often need rapid burial and low oxygen environments that stop the organism from decomposing…when the entire organism becomes rapidly encased in material… 

Most are formed when a living organism…is quickly buried by sediment…or…ash which would occur during a volcanic eruption. Because of this, most terrestrial organisms never get the chance to become fossilised.

Or dated.

sedimentary and metamorphic rocks can’t be radiometrically dated…

[This includes the fossils themselves.]

only igneous rocks can be radiometrically dated…

Hence Lake Turkana’s geological history that favored not only fossilization but the opportunity to pin dates on the fossils.

The Rift Valley is the result of an ancient series of faults, rifts, and volcanoes deriving from the shifting of tectonic plates at the junction between the Somalian and the African plates…

The faults occurred in time from the Paleozoic to Quaternary eras, a time span of some 500 million years.

How did they derive those dates?

The volcanic material in tuff is well-suited for radiometric dating, which uses….an unstable isotope of potassium. Problems of 40K/40Ar Dating

The fundamental assumptions in potassium-argon dating are that

(a) no argon was left in the volcanic material after formation and

(b) the system has remained closed since the material was produced, so that no argon has either entered or left the sample since formation.

The former assumption may be invalid in the case of…previously formed argon during formation under high hydrostatic pressure. [We see evidence of massive flooding again.]

Similarly, certain rocks may have incorporated older “argon-rich” material during formation.

Such factors result in the sample age being overestimated (Fitch, 1972)…

It is reasonable to ask if the K-Ar test is accurate before we accept its results as accurate. It turns out that the test is definitely not accurate. Here are two cases…

A lava flow that is known to have taken place in 1800-1801…was dated by potassium-argon as being 2,960 million years old. If the real dates had not been reasonably well established by other means, who could have proved that the potassium-argon dates were so wrong?…

The newly-formed lava domes at Mount St. Helens was dated to an age of 340,000 years when it was only 10 years old…

those who believe in an old Earth…test a sample of rock and get an age in the billions of years, is it really that old or is it much younger, maybe a couple of thousand years old..The K-Ar test is not trustworthy. Despite this it is still being used because it supports the preconceptions of the materialists.

 Although only igneous rocks can be radiometrically dated, ages of other rock types can be constrained by the ages of igneous rocks with which they are interbedded.

Seriously? What is being claimed here is that

  1. igneous / volcanic rocks formed from material deep underground and spewed above ground
  2. can be used to assign the same date to the formation of above-ground sedimentary rock layers whose material has always been exposed to the atmospheric elements and which were formed by water-born events either slowly over time or during a rapid catastrophic flood event
  3. because they were thrown together during tectonic events that shook the earth hard enough to split it wide open.

How does that even make sense?

geologists must make an initial assumption about the way rock strata are formed. Of course, it only applies to sedimentary rocks…

Once we assume that all rock layers were originally horizontal, we can make another assumption: that the oldest rock layers are furthest toward the bottom, and the youngest rock layers are closest to the top. This rule is called the Law of Superposition

I think we can all assume that during a volcanic explosion – as an airline steward once amusingly explained while giving his passenger instructions to secure their belongings -“shift happens.”

The area has also been dominated by different landscapes over the span of Turkana’s history—flood plains…an active volcano…

And this explains how Lake Turkana’s geological history “favored the preservation” of 10,000 fossils.

The Rift Valley of eastern Africa and Asia (sometimes called the Great Rift Valley [GRV] or East African Rift system [EAR or EARS]) is an enormous geological split in the crust of the earth, thousands of kilometers long, up to 125 miles (200 kilometers) wide, and between a few hundred to thousands of meters deep…and visible from space.

How many volcanoes are in the East African Rift Valley?

More than 100 young volcanoes – that have had activity within about 10,000 years…

Nothing in the Great Rift Valley can be  honestly assumed to have lain in position for millions of years.

How fast is Africa splitting apart?
The Arabian plate is moving away from Africa at a rate of about 1 inch per year, while the two African plates are separating…between half an inch to 0.2 inches per year…

Geologists know that the Rift Valley was formed by violent subterranean forces that tore apart the earth’s crust.

Despite this area of the world providing the strongest evidence of catastrophism, the Evolutionists who flock to this area for fossils use the Uniformitarianism paradigm – applying the rate of today’s processes to the past – so they can shore up Evolution’s need for long periods of time for its biological processes.

Evolution’s arbitrary designation of dating procedures to conform to its uniformitarianism belief system proves that, far more than any Creationist religion, it is based strictly on belief against the evidence.

Scientific papers and news reports about new fossils so regularly come with estimates of age. I asked John Hawks, a biologist at the University of Wisconsin and one of the heads of the Rising Star expedition, to talk me through the various available methods—and why they have been difficult to apply to the latest finds.

The technique people are most likely to have heard of is carbon dating. It hinges upon the presence of carbon-14, a radioactive isotope of carbon that accumulates in the bodies of animals throughout our lives, and gradually decays after we die. By measuring the amounts left in a specimen, scientists can calculate when its owner died. The problem is that carbon-14 decays relatively quickly, as radioactive isotopes go, so this method only works well for samples this side of 50,000 years old

Whoa! So what methods are used to establish dates older than 50,000 years ago, i.e. millions of years on the calendar of the evolution of all living things?

An alternative technique, known as electron spin resonance or ESR…is great for dating teeth…a tooth acts like a dosimeter for radiation, in a way that depends on two things: the levels of natural radiation in its environment, and how long it was buried for. If you know the former, you can deduce the latter.

But knowing the natural radiation levels is “sort of nightmarish,” says Hawks. It involves, for example, installing actual radiation dosimeters and taking out vertical cores of sediment. And even then, the results from ESR typically need to be cross-checked against other sources of data. Paleontologists can sometimes date a new fossil by looking at its companions in death, by finding nearby bones of other extinct animals that died within a known timeframe…

As a defense attorney, I would “Strike that!”

  1. Being in the vicinity does not prove being accomplices or companions in death.
  2. What is the proof for the ‘known” timeframe of the death of the other animals? This is circular reasoning, not logical deduction.

in southern Africa, hominid fossils are almost always found in caves like Rising Star. Here, there are no convenient volcanic layers. Instead, the bones are typically embedded within breccia—a concrete-like mixture of gravel, sand, and other junk that accumulated in the floor of the cave. These blocks might still be surrounded by informative layers called flowstones—sheets of calcite formed when water drips down the walls and floors of a cave. The water carries soluble uranium, which remains in the flowstone and decays over time into thorium and lead. Again, the levels of these elements reveal the age of the layer

Strike that for the same reason as above – assuming uniformity of levels of atmospheric and geological elements which is known not to be the case, especially over the millions of years required for the conceptual process of evolution.

The reality is that even National Geographic frankly states that all dating methods are highly unreliable. “Ask an archaeologist how old the site they’re excavating is, and they may not have an answer.

See a rare baby dinosaur curled up in its fossilised egg. One of the most complete dino embryos ever found shows the ancient infant tucked into a position that’s strikingly similar to today’s unhatched chickens


the infant dino comes from rocks estimated to be roughly 70 million years old, though its precise age remains uncertain.

That estimated yet confident date OF THE ROCK places it prior to the advent of birds within the Evolutionary schema. This is circular reasoning.

All birds directly evolved from a group of two-legged dinosaurs known as theropods.

The embryo is a type of oviraptorosaur—a group of beaked therapod dinosaurs closely related to modern birds that lived about 130 million to 66 million years ago. These creatures share many traits with their avian relatives, and the embryo hints at one more: a curled pre-hatching position.

“The evidence that birds are living theropod dinosaurs is, at this point, overwhelming.”

I’m finding the evidence underwhelming.

The fossil is also strikingly similar to today’s unhatched lizards. There’s just not much room in the egg to move around, is there?


One time frme we can deduce for certain is that extinction of species happens rapidly.


Following is a good example of how fossil dating cannot be taken seriously.

The discovery of carvings on a snake-shaped rock along with 70,000-year-old spearheads nearby has dramatically pushed back the earliest evidence for ritual behavior, or what could be called religion.The finding, which researchers have yet to formally publish, comes from a cave hidden in the Tsodilo Hills of Botswana, a mecca of sorts for the local people, who call it the Mountain of the Gods…

[The researchers] found…a six-meter-long rock that bore a striking resemblance to a snake, including a mouthlike gash at the end. “My first words I remember saying are, ‘My god…”

Snakes feature prominently in the traditions and the mythology of the San, sometimes called the Bushmen.

[R]eliable markers of the site’s longevity lay buried…In a one-meter-wide, two-meter-deep excavation right next to the snake, the researchers uncovered more than 100 multicolored spear points from a total of 13,000 man-made artifacts.

The tips closely resemble those found elsewhere in Africa that researchers have dated at up to 77,000 years old, Coulson says. Judging from the rare colors of the stone points and the pattern of fragments, people from far and wide likely brought them to the cave partially made and finished working them there, she explains.

Some of the stone tips seem to have been burned or smashed in what may have been a type of sacrifice…Other spearheads exhibit chips and marks that suggest someone had struck the finished tips dead-on, something that researchers have observed at sites in Siberia, she notes.

Did you catch the self-serving circular reasoning in this account?

  1. The researchers date the use of the stone snake by the artifacts found with it.
  2. Although it is impossible to date when these stones were worked into artifacts, in an inexcusable misuse of the term “reliable”, researchers deceptively claim they can be dated by their resemblance to those found elsewhere which have been dated to 77,000 years old.
  3. The reliability of that dating is not provided, and is in fact impossible to provide.
  4. The reality, as stated by the article, which, significantly, has not been published, is that this site has been in continuous use for just the last few thousand years by the San people whose offerings are most certainly among the artifacts discovered.

The San populated South Africa long before the arrival of the Bantu-speaking nations, and thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans…The San are the best model we have for the hunter-gatherer lifestyle…

Rock art by the late Stone Age hunter-gatherers can be found in the form of paintings or engravings in almost every district in South Africa…Although many are not well preserved, collectively they represent a remarkable record of the beliefs and cultural practices of the people who made them. Most were created by San hunter-gatherers…

The San have a rich oral history and have passed stories down from generation to generation. The oldest rock paintings they created are in Namibia and have been radiocarbon-dated to be 26,000 years old.

Wait, what? Radiocarbon dating has been demonstrated to be unreliable.

In recent years, a field that has traditionally relied on fossil discoveries has acquired helpful new tools: genomics and ancient DNA techniques...hinting at a far more complex past than was previously appreciated—one rich in diversity, migration, and possibly even interbreeding…

“To piece together that story, we need information from multiple different fields of study,” remarks Eleanor Scerri, an archaeologist at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany. “No single one is really going to have all the answers—not genetics, not archaeology, not the fossils, because all of these areas have challenges and limitations.”

And back to National Geographic’s educational material. It’s sounding more like indoctrinational to me.

Only time will tell whether researchers’ current arsenal of technologies is enough to untangle the complete story of human evolution. Perhaps novel technologies —such as paleoproteomics, a nascent field that aims to reconstruct ancestry from fossilized proteins, which are more durable than DNA—will help researchers “push further back in time.”

The problem: By the mid 19th century it was obvious that Earth was much older than 6000 years,

Obvious? On what dating system? It was not obvious, it was asserted out of a religious idea rejecting biblical authority and morality. As this article itself admits, the idea of an old Earth came first, followed by efforts to prove it.

To understand how the ideas of Medieval men untrained in any field of science, only retroactively called “scientists”, could effect such massive changes in entrenched religious and secular views of geological and biological processes TO THIS DAY in spite of massive amounts of evidence uncovered since then, we need to place their ideas in the context of their time.

The battle between the secular Renaissance and religious Reformation.


The Renaissance.

The Renaissance resurrected the classical world depicted as “the glory that was Greece, And the grandeur that was Rome.

High praise indeed. But was it all glory and grandeur, or more gory and degradation?

The best starting point to begin any cursory investigation into the Classical World is with the twin verse [Trojan War] epics compiled by Homer…Iliad and Odyssey

The Iliad supplies a highly dramatic insight into a heroic world whose reality has never faltered…gods and goddesses…There is something peculiarly vital in Homer’s 2,700-year-old tales…the Iliad is a largely an account of a society riven by warfare, Odysseus is barely part of a society at all…

Homer’s heroic themes…connected…[Greek] Alexander…to [Roman] Julius Caesar and his successors, who attempted to emulate his imperial achievements…

Alexander began his Asian adventures with a pilgrimage to what was then the village of Troy…

When Alexander arrived at Troy, he anointed himself with oil and ran naked to the tombstone of Achilles in order to honour it with a garland, while Hephaestion did likewise for the tomb of Patroclus…The two were already intimate and the comparison with Achilles and Patroclus would remain to the end of their days, since by Alexander’s time it was entirely acceptable for them to have enjoyed the homosexual relationship about which Homer had only to felt free to offer hints…Alexander was quite prepared to swing both ways when there was a political advantage to be gained…

Initially, Romans considered themselves more restrained than Greeks, who had a reputation for lascivious conduct... At Greek drinking parties (‘symposia’), the only women in attendance were slave girls and the high point was drinking wine afterwards. The free-born guests were all male and sex was always a possibility, whether with a slave girl or each other. In contrast, the Romans gave dinners at which food was the central item and freeborn women, including wives, were present. Roman conversation was prosaic and factual, and according to one commentator repeating Greek verses was like telling dirty stories…

[Then] What began on…Alexander the Great’s Makran expedition passed to the Ptolemies in Egypt, to the generals of Rome…[to] the emperors…crowds as vast as 150,000 in the Circus Maximus…

Sex and violence presented together clearly provided a highly arousing combination…women having sex with animals…squatted inside a wooden cow [mounted by] a bull…

I thought I was familiar with sexual abuse through my profession, but I discovered how innocent I was in thinking that this exhibition surely killed the woman when I googled “pornography of woman having sex with a bull and received “About 53,900,000 results (0.47 seconds)”.

Segue to

the enduring appeal of sex and violence provides a contiguous thread throughout the history of Ancient Greece and Rome, raising issues which percolate all the way down to the Renaissance and questions that remain relevant to many contemporary controversies and conflicts.

Renaissance artists clearly knew what their audiences liked and satisfied this appetite for cruelty by depicting buckets of gore, suppurating gashes, and the extremities of torture. Graphic decapitations of…John the Baptist…Jesus impaled on the cross invariably spurted bright gouts of crimson blood…

After Michelangelo, Caravaggio (1571-1610) exerted the most prodigious influence on Italian painting as it evolved…

Like Homer and Herodotus, his lasting influence has continued to echo down the centuries, informing…a host of other artists…

The model of Amor vincit omnia is known to have…lived with Caravaggio…and the two may well have been lovers…his Del Monte period are replete with “full-lipped, languorous boys … who seem to solicit the onlooker with their offers of fruit, wine, flowers – and themselves” Louis Crompton, in his Homosexuality and Civilization…Caravaggio’s 1599 portrait of a Boy With Flowers is incontrovertibly androgynous, as are all eight versions he painted of St John the Baptist.

Amor‘s nudity is blocked here. His work is certainly obsessive, and certainly obscene by depicting the ascetic St. John the Baptist in his paradigm.

In doing so he reveals the nature of the Renaissance – transforming Christian society back to unbridled sexuality including what is still known today as Greek sex.


The Reformation

The Renaissance is often envisioned in terms of Italy’s resurgence of magnificent art. But the workhorse printing press is what truly changed society.

The war banner of the Reformers was “Know the Truth, And the Truth Will Set You Free.”

Martin Luther struck the first blows against the corruption of both the medieval Roman Catholic Church and the Renaissance of sex and violence simply by empowering ordinary people to read the Bible for themselves. There they could discover individual freedom from both religious tyranny and “lusts of the flesh”, what we currently call addictions to physical drives leading to self- and other-destructive behaviors like substance and sexual abuse.

Martin Luther became the world’s first best-selling author. In the seven years from 1518 to 1525, Luther’s writings accounted for a third of all books sold in Germany and his German language Bible went through more than 430 editions.

This kicked off a frenzy of translating the Bible into the national languages with a resultant surge of Bible adherents breaking away from Catholic dictates. But having Bibles wasn’t enough, they needed to be read by individuals, not pontificated from pulpits to gullible followers. Martin Luther advocated state-funded free education of all social levels, for girls as well as boys. This policy elevated Germany to the heights of academic and scientific scholarship.

In the nineteenth century the Germany university was the most admired institution of higher education in the western world…Germany’s universities exemplified the ideal of pure learning, the disinterested pursuit of truth, knowledge for its own sake…and modern historians have accepted this statement of purpose…

the eurozone crisis falls roughly along religious dividing lines, with Catholic southern European countries such as Italy and Spain faring far worse than the Protestant northern countries like Finland and Germany.

“Germany is a nice laboratory to study these issues,” says Becker, since the country’s mix of Protestant and Catholic areas dates back five centuries to the Protestant Reformation…

“This is a time when literacy rates were around 1 percent for the population at large,” says Becker, “and there is Martin Luther who says that every town should have a girls’ school.”

As literacy and education rates among Protestants rose, they began out-earning their Catholic counterparts. Five centuries after Luther, that earning gap persists.

So powerfully did Luther’s influence reverberate down through the ages that, during a visit to Germany in 1934, Rev. Michael King Sr. chose to change both his and his son’s name to Martin Luther King. MLK Jr…. [the] namesake of the great German reformer would make full use of the power of free speech in catalyzing the American civil rights movement…

John Knox the 16th century Scot…is remembered mainly for his reform of the Scottish church / kirk but he also made a significant contribution to the reform of education….which involved character formation and enabled all to achieve the limit of their potential…in Scotland at a time when it was known as ‘the most culturally backward nation in western Europe’…

By the 18th century the Scottish Reformation’s insistence and implementation of free public education for both males and females elevated Scotland to the highest standard of literacy of any European nation.

The Reformation had a considerable social, economic and political impact on Scotland. 

The Protestant Reformation is a vivid example of how religious transformation could set in
motion institutional changes, leading to profound consequences for economic and political
development. Max Weber was the first to identify the significant role that the Reformation played in
socio-economic development of Western Europe…

The difference between the results of the Reformation’s biblical enlightenment and the Reformation’s secular Enlightenment could not be more stark.

n 1789 the French Revolution began by denying religion altogether. Accepting only what the senses could experience, it set up the atheistic Cult of Reason. Proclaiming Renaissance humanistic ideals, it replaced the Hebrew 7 day work week with Rome’s 10-day work week, and sacred days of worship with pagan sensual festivals.

Robespierre, one of the most influential leaders of the revolution, detested the amoral culture spawned by atheism. Believing, like Nietzsche did later, that belief in a god was necessary to achieve the virtue essential to a Republican form of government, Robespierre replaced the Cult of Reason by the Cult of the Supreme Being. Within the year Robespierre was executed, and his religious reformation wiped out.

Promising enlightenment through scientific discoveries, freedom from religious dogma, and political democracy for all classes the French Revolution rapidly degenerated into an orgy of blood, not just for France, but for most of continental Europe under the first of two lowly privates catapulted to Supreme Dictator of the reorganized Roman Empire seized from the Church.


Like Charlemagne who kicked off what became retroactively known as the 1st Reich with the “Holy Roman Empire” Napoleon crowned himself Emperor in the presence of the Pope. This enhanced Napoleon’s intended impression, that he was the highest authority in France, more powerful than the Church.

Like August Caesar before him, he already had absolute power through his position of First Consul for Life. Unlike Caesar, by doing this, Napoleon did away with the flimsy illusion of the Republic. Napoleon further undid any democratic reforms of the Revolution by re-establishing the French aristocracy, the French Court, and granting titles and land to those that served him well throughout his campaigns.

The second lowly private was, of course, Hitler with his Third Reich. Again with the Pope’s approval.

In July 1933, Hitler and Pope Pius XI signed a concordat, or treaty. On the face of it, the Vatican had scored a great triumph…

Hitler had even more reason to be satisfied. The concordat was his first international agreement, and it vastly enhanced his respectability in Germany and abroad.

This is the recurring pattern whenever God is eliminated from society. As even atheists like Nietzsche understand, the reality of freedom without an absolute moral foundation inevitably translates into one Principle – Might Makes Right, AKA Survival of the Fittest.

If this phrase alone doesn’t clarify the purpose of Evolution and the future of most of humanity then check out the common thread in all good literature.

“In its capacity to warn about such extremes, fantastic fiction has the edge over what is called realism. ‘Realism’ has a knee-jerk tendency to avoid extremes as implausible, but ‘Fantasy’ actively embraces them.” writes John Garth.

Peter Jackson said…”Tolkien hated war, the futility and devastation of war, but he also said that sometimes there are things worth fighting for. Above all, freedom. Those who are enslaved, who are victims of the horrors of invasion and oppression, are right to offer resistance. This is the theme of the Second World War. The First World War was merely futile and devastating, a stupid war which should not have been fought. The Second, though, if it’s possible to justify war in the 20th century independently of one’s personal position towards war, had to be fought. I believe that Tolkien judged the War of the Ring – which I have portrayed in the film – as a war to be fought.

From The Complexity of Tolkien’s Attitude About the Second World War.


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s