Genetic studies have determined that all humans share a common male and female ancestor, informally calling them Adam and Eve.
Female ancestry is tracked through female-specific mitochondrial DNA.
Male ancestry is tracked, logically, through the male-specific Y chromosome (called Y-DNA). Geneticists have isolated distinct human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups based on sequential accumulation of mutations over time. The man with the original non-mutated DNA, informally known as Y-chromosomal Adam, is acknowledged by geneticists to be the male ancestor of all living humans.
According to genetic studies, at one time in the past humanity experienced a “population bottleneck…a sharp reduction in the size of a population due to environmental events such as…flood.”
According to the Bible, after a world-wide flood approximately 4,500 years ago, only four men were available to repopulate the entire earth with humanity.
- “Noah was…perfect in his generations [his genes had not mutated from Adam’s genes]
- And Noah begat three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.” (Genesis 6:9-10)
The investigators deny the validity of the historical biblical account, which is much too recent in time for the Evolutionary model. However, the studies’
- internal unreliability
- and external invalidation by scientific knowledge
disproves their Evolutionary model and establishes the unscientific nature of their claims.
For instance, the Y-haploid study ranks the Y Haplogroups from
- “possible time of origin” beginning at ~275,000 years ago,
- a “possible place of origin” in Africa taking 200,000 years before emigration to a neighboring area,.
- and tens of thousands of years before emigration to the next nearest landmass
Can anyone take this seriously?!
Chronological development of haplogroups
|Haplogroup||Possible time of origin||Possible place of origin||Possible MRCA|
|A00||235,900 or 275,000 years ago||Africa||235,900 years ago|
|BT||130,700 years ago||Africa||88,000 years ago|
|CT||88,000 or 101-100,000 years ago||Africa||68,500 years ago|
|E||65,200, 69,000, or 73,000 years ago||East Africa or Asia||53,100 years ago|
|F||65,900 years ago||Eurasia||48,800 years ago|
|G||48,500 years ago||Middle East||26,200 years ago|
|IJ||47,200 years ago||Middle East||42,900 years ago|
|K||47,200 years ago||Asia||45,400 years ago|
|P||45,400 years ago||Asia||31,900 years ago|
|J||42,900 years ago||Middle East||31,600 years ago|
|I||42,900 years ago||Europe||27,500 years ago|
|E-M215 (E1b1b)||42,300 years ago||East Africa||34,800 years ago|
|E-V38 (E1b1a)||42,300 years ago||East Africa||40,100 years ago|
|N||36,800 years ago||Asia||22,100 years ago|
|E1b1b-M35||34,800 years ago||East Africa||24,100 years ago|
|R||31,900 years ago||Asia||28,200 years ago|
|J-M267 (J1)||31,600 years ago||Middle East||18,500 years ago|
|J-M172 (J2)||31,600 years ago||Middle East||27,800 years ago|
|R-M173 (R1)||28,200 years ago||Asia||22,800 years ago|
|I-M253 (I1)||27,500 years ago||Europe||4,600 years ago|
|I-M438 (I2)||27,500 years ago||Europe||21,800 years ago|
|R-M420 (R1a)||22,800 years ago||Eurasia||18,300 years ago|
|R-M343 (R1b)||22,800 years ago||Eurasia||20,400 years ago|
|I2-L460 (I2a)||21,800 years ago||Europe||21,100 years ago|
|I2a-P37||21,100 years ago||Europe||18,500 years ago|
|E1b1b-M78||19,800 years ago||Northeast Africa||13,400 years ago|
|I2a-M423||18,500 years ago||Europe||13,500 years ago|
|I2a-M223||17,400 years ago||Europe||12,100 years ago|
|N1c-M178||14,200 years ago||Asia||11,900 years ago|
|R1a-M17||14,100 years ago||Eastern Europe||8,500 years ago|
|R1b-M269||13,300 years ago||Eastern Europe||6,400 years ago|
|E1b1b-V12||11,800 years ago||North Africa||9,900 years ago|
|E-U175 (E1b1a8)||9,200 years ago||East Africa||8,500 years ago|
|E1b1b-V13||8,100 years ago||Southern Europe||4,800 years ago|
|E-M191 (E1b1a7)||7,400 years ago||East Africa||6,400 years ago|
|E-U174 (E1b1a-U174)||6,400 years ago||East Africa||5,300 years ago|
|R1b-L151||5,800 years ago||Eastern Europe||4,800 years ago|
|R1a-Z280||5,000 years ago||Eastern Europe||4,600 years ago|
|R1a-M458||4,700 years ago||Eastern Europe||4,700 years ago|
Beside the overt racism granting Europeans the highest development and survival on the evolutionary scale, the most informative element of the time chart should be glaringly obvious, and it’s not even the pervasive use of the modifier “possible”.
It is the fundamental irrationality of the Evolutionary model
- claiming these groups formed by continuous minimal incremental mutations over long periods of time,
- and at the same time asserting a gap of upwards of hundreds of thousands of years during which no mutations occurred between the origination of a set of mutations and their presence in the “most recent common ancestor” / MRCA,
- NOR any mutations during the time between the MRCA and their descendants currently living who are carrying those mutations
- so the total span of time between each group’s genetic stability is enormous
- while during this same time mutations were ongoing and forming other haplogroups.
Just a couple of examples:
- Haplogroup C possibly originated 100,000 years ago in Africa currently found – in the exact same condition – in isolated pockets as far from each other as Asia, Oceania, and North America.
- Haplogroup D possibly originated 70,000 years ago in Africa currently found in Tibet, Nigeria, and the Middle East. How did members of this group manage to live among other groups in the populous Fertile Crescent (get the pun?) for 70,000 years without other people’s genetics jumping into their gene pool?
In order to align with the Evolutionary model, advances in knowledge of genetic mutations, currently available in our COVID-obsessed era, has not been applied to these genetic analyses.
Adam is estimated to have lived roughly 236,000 years ago based on the calculation that the human Y-chromosome accumulates roughly two mutations per generation.
In reality, “Every time human DNA is passed from one generation to the next it accumulates 100–200 new mutations, according to a DNA-sequencing analysis of the Y chromosome…”
When we change the biased and outright deceptive factor of 1-2 mutations per generation to the scientifically known 100-200 mutations per generation, we arrive at the calculation of only 2,000 -4,000 years since the Most Common Ancestor. This is consistent with the time of Noah’s flood, and marks Noah, only “the seventh from Adam” who was “perfect in his generations” i.e. genetic ancestry, as carrying the original human’s created genetics.
A fumbling attempt to counter this longitudinal research data is made by the unscientifically wild guesswork of “But the mutation rate might be somewhat different on other chromosomes, points out Adam Eyre-Walker, an evolutionary biologist.”
As an evolutionary biologist he knows that is not “might be” but “in fact” – the mitochondrial genes. But it doesn’t help the evolutionary case.
[W]hile nuclear DNA is inherited from both parents and recombines with every generation, mitochondrial DNA is inherited solely from your mother and can remain unchanged for hundreds of thousands of years. As such, mitochondrial DNA (also known as the “mitogenome”) is a key tool for tracking genetic history.
one of the oldest DNA lineages on Earth [is] a collection of genes called L0, which is passed down maternally through mitochondria and has survived remarkably unchanged in some populations…
all living people are believed to descend on their maternal line from the woman who first carried the sequence…
Today, the L0 lineage is found most commonly in the Khoisan people, two indigenous groups living in southern Africa.
Wow. I’m pretty sure this is not what C.S. Lewis had in mind when he wrote about “daughter of Eve” in his very English The Lion, The Witch and the Wardrobe, but there we have it.
Archeologists have uncovered artwork and implements believed to be among the oldest in the world…
have some of the most incredible knowledge and insights into wild animals and the environment that they inhabit…ability to extract nutrients from seemingly inconspicuous plants and survive in generally arid or inhospitable environments…comprehensive knowledge about the medicinal values of plants, and they use natural items to cure hundreds of ailments without modern medicine…
This certainly demonstrates the perpetuation of an ancient way of life while isolated from other people groups unable or unwilling to maintain existence in such a minimalist environment. One could even call it biblical.
“For we brought nothing into this world, and it is certain we can carry nothing out. And having food and raiment let us be therewith content. But they that will be rich fall into temptation and a snare, and into many foolish and hurtful lusts, which drown men in destruction and perdition.” (I Timothy 6:7-9)
about 1,000 years after their displacement by the Bantu…population dropped after the Khoi were exposed to smallpox from Europeans…
colonial expansion…led to the Khoijhou losing their land and livestock as well as dramatic change in the social, economic and political development…
Today we are witnessing the end of the Khoisan people.
The more-or-less pristine condition of the Khoisan mitochondrial DNA over hundreds of thousands of years can be explained by
- early isolation from the rest of the world’s population,
- stable environment over the course of their history
- and reduced exposure to viruses in southern Africa’s hot, dry climate.
- Insertions of fragments of viral DNA into the host chromosomes are capable of changing the host DNA.
- Our results and literature data lead to the conclusion that a significant share of hereditary defects in man might be caused by viruses.
This is because viruses – which are essentially small bits of DNA in a protein capsule – reproduce by highjacking the hosts’ DNA and enslaving it to manufacture the viral proteins instead of the hosts’ intended products. Some of the virus’ DNA often gets left behind.
We already know that 60 per cent of known infectious diseases in humans and 75 per cent of all emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic. Ebola, SARS, the Zika virus and bird flu all came to people by way of animals…
The report—produced in partnership with universities, research institutions, UN agencies and the secretariats of several multilateral environmental agreements— identifies key anthropo- genic [originating in humans] drivers for the emergence of zoonoses…
- increasing human demand for animal protein;
- unsustainable agricultural intensification;
- increased use and exploitation of wildlife;
- unsustainable utilization of natural resources accelerated by urbanization, land use change and extractive industries…
This defines the actions of historic people groups migrating into unsettled territories.
In Guns, Germs, and Steel, Jared Diamond outlines the theory of geographic determinism, the idea that the differences between societies and societal development arise primarily from geographical causes..
First, he shows that agricultural societies developed immunities to deadly diseases like smallpox. Constant proximity to domesticated animals, combined with increased population density, meant that new germs were constantly circulating in agricultural societies. As a result, these societies became resistant to many epidemics—those who couldn’t survive died off, while those with [infection-created genetic] immunities survived and passed on their [genetic] immunities to their offspring.
We know for certain that individuals and groups have traveled and migrated around the world. Known geographical dispersion, rather than supposition of unproven length of time for some groups but not others, gives us the credible explanation for the development of disparate Y-chromosome haploid groups.
- A parallel timeline of genetic mutations occurring simultaneously in all the groups.
- Differentiation by geographical features of altitude, percentage and type of water sources, soil conditions, environmental climate factors of temperature and degree of exposure to the sun’s radiation; ecological availability of foods and exposure to toxic plants and microbes.
- Microbial infection transmitted by the different species of animals in the different locations.
This theory is confirmed by the National Institutes of Health. Population migration, not time, is the cause of mutations creating distinct population groups.
Due to population migration distinct lineages of MDT are associated with major global groups including African, European, Native American/Asian, & Oceanic/Aboriginal Australian.
The most accurate map of the world, used on the United Nations flag, contrasts sharply with the inaccurate juxtaposition of the continents shown on the commonly used maps. The accurate map reveals the shorter distances needed for cross-oceanic travel as well as overland.
These population groups’ migrations up mountains, through deserts, across oceans, into frozen wastelands were driven by the same push factors experienced by our modern day refugees – primarily war.
Occam’s razor logical explanation for the presence of the Khoisan in the most inhospitable Kalahari Desert is “push factored” migration from a more hospitable environment near the Mediterranean to escape extermination, enslavement or absorption by incoming cultures.
This is supported by yet another scientific upset contradicting evolutionists’ a prior assumption that
- because Homo sapiens evolved from apes only found in Africa
- Homo sapiens must have spread worldwide from Africa .
Recent DNA test results on a 3,500 year old African human fossil bone found a higher proportion of Eurasian DNA than is currently found in Africans, indicating that Africans were originally part of, then became isolated from, a population which included Europeans and Asians and migrated to Africa.
The rapid spread of the COVID virus world wide certainly made us aware of the value of isolating segments of population. In the past, this naturally occurred through geographical barriers.
Then enforced inbreeding among isolated people groups rapidly stabilized the genetic makeup of the groups, identifiable as paternal Y-chromosome and maternal mitochondrial haploid groups.
“Now these are the gene(s)-rations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham and Japheth.” (Genesis 10)
The biblical account of the Semitic peoples is eerily consistent with today’s news, providing validation of these ancient documents.
“Shem, the third of Noah, had five sons, who inhabited the land that began at Euphrates, and reached to the Indian Ocean [through the Persian gulf].
- For Elam left behind him the Elamites, the ancestors of the Persians [Iranians].
- Ashur lived at the city Nineve; and named his subjects Assyrians [northern Iraqis] who became the most fortunate nation, beyond others [from a materialistic perspective.]
- Arphaxad named the Arphaxadites, who are now called Chaldeans [considered to be the “live continuation of all the indigenous people of Mesopotamia.” Saddam Hussein personifies the dream of reuniting all the indigenous people of Mesopotamia at Babel/Babylon. “To the horror of historic preservationists, he had the ancient walls of the former capital, Babylon, completely reconstructed using tens of thousands of newly fired bricks. An archaeologist had shown him bricks stamped with the name of Nebuchadnezzar II in 605 B.C. After the reconstruction, the small Arabic script on thousands of bricks read in part, “In the reign of the victorious Saddam Hussein, the president of the Republic, may God keep him, the guardian of the great Iraq and the renovator of its renaissance and the builder of its great civilization, the rebuilding of the great city of Babylon was done.”]
- Laud [aka Lud] founded the Laudites, which are now called Lydians [in modern eastern Turkey, after whom was named a prominent promoter of the apostle Paul’s missionary endeavors.]
- Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians;
- Of the four sons of Aram, Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus: this [Eliezar’s and Job’s] country lies between Palestine and Cele-Syria / Greater-Syria. [Geographically this is the territory now called Lebanon, whose borders have shifted over the years. In other words, Uz inherited a piece of his father’s land, called Syria now but at that time Padan-Aram which, as we see from the geography of Aram’s other sons, extended beyond modern Syria. And with Uz we find another link to the apostle Paul in the city in which he was converted.]
- Ul founded Armenia; [back to Mount Ararat, where it is possible that Noah put down roots. Armenia was the first Christian state, declared 12 years before Constantine made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire.]
- Gather the Bactrians; [Uzbekistan, heading east, a wealthy and powerful territory in ancient times, from where, sometime after 1500 BC, one of the world’s most ancient prophets, Zoroaster / Zarathustra, traveled through Mesopotamia opposing polytheism as worship of Daevas / evil spirits. He preached that there is only one God, the creator, Ahura Mazda / Lord Wisdom of Asha / Truth, opposed by Angra Mainyu / Ahriman of Druj / Lie. He stressed the importance of free will and urged the people to follow the path of righteousness and truth.]
- Mesa the Mesaneans; it is now called Charax Spasini. [back to southern Iraq].
Arphaxad’s son Salah is also listed in the “fathers of nations” in Genesis 10 so although we don’t find him listed in the local directory he must have a people group descended from him. Since what we know about the nations comes from sources like Josephus, whose knowledge was limited to the Middle East and perimeter, there is a huge gap in identifying the ancestry of peoples in the Far East and the Americas. From a biblical perspective those ancient nations can with certainty be traced back to Genesis 10, even if the exact match is uncertain.
I would start by identifying Salah with the Indus Valley civilization, which is just a short boat ride from the mouth of the Euphrates River and corresponds to Josephus’ report that Shem’s descendants migrated east to the Indian Sea. Corresponding roughly to Salah’s lifetime (archeology is not by any means an exact science), this thriving culture, along with Mesopotamia and Egypt, was one of the three cradles of civilization.
Providing some support for this theory is the alternate name of “Sarasvati Civilization” with its linguistic connection to Salah, especially since Asians are known to mix the “L” and “R” sounds. Another clue is that the language of this culture has been tentatively identified as Semitic. Archaeological excavations indicate that the region was depopulated about 1900 BC and replaced with Aryan, i.e. Japhethite, peoples, who established the eastern leg of the Indo-European straddle. The standard pattern of dispersion of the original peoples is away from civilization, i.e. further east. Moving on through time as well as space we find that 1766 BC is the traditional date for the founding of the first historic dynasty in China.
There are many other cultural similarities between the the Hindu and Mayan civilizations as well.
We can know for certain Salah’s primary son and their descendants, because they are named and stayed close to home.
“And Arphaxad begat Salah; and Salah begat Eber. And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided;” (Genesis 10:24-25)
Peleg was still a young man, about 125-150 years old, when the tower of Babel incident occurred about 2200 B.C.
There are different interpretations of what was actually divided. If we take a straightforward translation from the Hebrew we accept that the physical earth is what is reported here. The breakup of one large landmass at this time would certainly expedite the breakup of one empire into independent nations.
While some analysts assume that the geological upheaval would be so destructive that humanity couldn’t survive, interpreting the report of this earth division as being caused by the usual aftershocks of the initial massive tectonic upheavals during the flood, as described in that post, is simply to be expected. Geological science confirms this interpretation.
Ham’s and Japheth’s people groups are described in following posts. These three ancestries constitute what came to be known as the Yellow, Black and White races.
But these genetic divisions are not the nations.
“These are the families of the sons of Noah,
- after their generations,
- in their nations:” (Genesis 10:32)
A nation is a political grouping of people, often composed of people with common ancestry, but not necessarily. One’s genetics – their family – is imposed, for better or for worse, and can’t be changed. But’s ones associates – social, political and religious identity – are valued assets to be gained to improve one’s lot in life.
Citizenship not something to be taken for granted. It is a privilege bestowed on those on those deemed worthy of the benefits of belonging to that nation. The means by which individuals came out from one nation to become citizens of another was the same as it is today.
Adoption swept away the existing state of being an inferior person or even non-person slave or captive, and bestowed a new and improved identity including
- a new past heritage glorifying the father of the nation,
- rights and privileges in the present
- and protection by the gods after death.
The reasons for which individuals left one nation to become members of another was the same as it is today.
Migration is prompted by “push” factors driving people out of their homeland and “pull” factors luring people to go to the trouble of resettling in a strange land. These usually come into play during periods of internal social or external military conflicts. This is reflected in the graph showing historic peak migrations to America.
- Famine. In Ireland during the mid-1800’s a potato blight causing mass starvation and disease prompted mass emigration. It is estimated that in just four years at its worst one million people died, one million emigrated, and others became nation-less refugees resulting in an immediate population drop of 20-25% out of a population of nine million, with a continuing population decline for a century. The destruction of the Irish people is attributed to England, which ruled Ireland from 1801-1922 as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and which permitted for the benefit of the wealthy landowners “a mass of poverty, disaffection, and degradation without a parallel in the world.” Although Ireland produced twice as much food needed to feed the entire Irish population, the British refused to lift the strict export rules on the foods to divert them to home use so as not to lose profits for, therefore political support from, the wealthy merchant class. The British also refused to send basic food supplies into the country stating, and I quote, “the judgment of God sent the calamity to teach the Irish a lesson.”
These same factors were active in the earliest stages of history as described in the Bible.
“the famine is sore in the land of Canaan: now therefore, we pray thee, let thy servants dwell in the land of Goshen.” (Genesis 43:1-2, 47:1-6)
The experiential validation of the Bible’s historical accounts provides a basis for trust in the Bible’s prognostication of humanity’s future.
- Subjugation. Government policies in 18th century Germany turned many of its people into virtual serfs / slaves. German laws of primo-geniture permitted only the eldest sons in families to inherit all of a fathers’ land. Heavy taxation prevented accumulation of capital for investment into private ventures, and constant warfare cut short the lives of generations of young men. From the 1700’s through the 1800’s millions of Germans emigrated to America, many of them as farmers developing America into the top exporter of food to the world, with Johann Jakob Astor demonstrating German Americans’ success in business by becoming America’s first multimillionaire. Given their love for personal freedom it should come as no surprise that German Americans opposed slavery, not only because it provided most of the farm labor in the southern U.S. states but because some of the German immigrants were political refugees from the many failed revolutions of 1848 in Europe who came to the United States filled with ideals and continued to fight for freedom as leaders in the American abolitionist movement. In the Civil War nearly one-quarter of all Union Army troops were German Americans, about half of whom had been born in Europe.
Illustration of the most famous scene from the expose Uncle Tom’s Cabin, by Harriet Beecher Stowe, in which the slave Eliza has to cross a treacherous body of water to reach freedom from the slavers pursuing her, and most importantly, her son.
“the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigour: And they made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in morter, and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field…And Pharaoh charged all his people, saying, Every son that is born ye shall cast into the river…And the angel of the LORD appeared unto [Moses] in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush…And the LORD said, I have surely seen the affliction of my people which are in Egypt, and have heard their cry by reason of their taskmasters; for I know their sorrows…Come now therefore, and I will send thee unto Pharaoh, that thou mayest bring forth my people the children of Israel out of Egypt…But the Egyptians pursued after them, all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army, and overtook them encamping by the sea…And the LORD said unto Moses…speak unto the children of Israel, that they go forward…And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground...(Exodus 1:13-22, 3:1-10, 14:9-22)
- Class struggle by laborers against capitalists. The 19th century was marked by an endless series of wars, with the British emerging as the victors, defeating both the Napoleonic and the Hapsburg Empires to become the largest empire in history, controlling the fourth part of the world’s population and landmass including much of Asia and almost all of Africa under colonial rule. The Pax Britannica (updated Pax Romana) ushered in unprecedented globalization and economic integration. In combination with the Second Industrial Revolution this resulted in skyrocketing profits and power accruing exponentially to the upper classes who built fabulous mansions and filled them with treasures from around the world, but in plummeting standards of living for the vast majority of people on whose labor the rich were getting richer. This was due in large part to a massive population shift from farms to urbanization. Outright slavery was abolished but factory and mine workers were treated no better than slaves and often even worse. Widespread unemployment of able bodied men destroyed families as factory and mine owners increasing their profits by preferentially employing women and children who were paid less per hour. Children as young as 6 years old worked up to 16 hours a day, 6 days a week. Diseases swept through the crowded and unsanitary cities but the newly established governments had neither the medical knowledge nor administrative will to combat them. Increasingly desperate people found it more and more difficult to find a reason to stay home. At the turn of the 20th century Italian immigrants made up 10% of the foreign immigrants. At the same time, Russian discriminatory policies imposing poverty through relocation to desolate areas spurred millions of Jews to emigrate.
“And Solomon reigned over all kingdoms from the river unto the land of the Philistines, and unto the border of Egypt: they brought presents, and served Solomon all the days of his life…For he had dominion over all the region on this side the river, from Tiphsah even to Azzah, over all the kings on this side the river: and he had peace on all sides round about him. And Judah and Israel dwelt safely…And king Solomon raised a levy out of all Israel; and the levy was 30,000 men. And he sent them to Lebanon, 10,000 a month by courses: a month they were in Lebanon, and two months at home: and Adoniram was over the levy. And Solomon had 70,000 that bare burdens, and 80,000 hewers in the mountains; Beside the chief of Solomon’s officers which were over the work, 3,300, which ruled over the people that wrought in the work…And the
- house which king Solomon built for the LORD…when it was in building, was built of stone made ready before it was brought thither…And the whole house he overlaid with gold, until he had finished all the house...seven years in building it.
- But Solomon was building his own house thirteen years…
- He built also the house of the forest of Lebanon…
- made also an house for Pharaoh’s daughter, whom he had taken to wife…
- All these were of costly stones…
- stones of ten cubits [which I calculated to be at least 15 feet square, or roughly the size of one end of the largest quarried stones known, at Baalbek, Lebanon, and if cubed I calculated to be about 2,500 pounds or 1 1/4 tons each] ,
- and stones of eight cubits…
- and cedars…
- two pillars of brass, of eighteen cubits high apiece: and a line of twelve cubits did compass either of them about…
- And Solomon left all the vessels unweighed, because they were exceeding many: neither was the weight of the brass found out.
- And Solomon made all the vessels that pertained unto the house of the LORD: the altar of gold, and the table of gold, whereupon the shewbread was, And the candlesticks of pure gold..And Solomon brought in the things which David his father had dedicated; even the silver, and the gold, and the vessels, did he put among the treasures of the house of the LORD….
- Now the weight of gold that came to Solomon in one year was six hundred threescore and six talents of gold,
- Beside that he had of the merchantmen, and of the traffick of the spice merchants, and of all the kings of Arabia, and of the governors of the country...
And Jeroboam the son of Nebat, an Ephrathite of Zereda, Solomon’s servant…was a mighty man of valour: and Solomon seeing the young man that he was industrious, he [had] made him ruler over all the charge of the house of Joseph...And [when] Solomon slept with his fathers…Jeroboam and all the congregation of Israel came, and spake unto Rehoboam, saying, Thy father made our yoke grievous: now therefore make thou the grievous service of thy father, and his heavy yoke which he put upon us, lighter, and we will serve thee…the king answered the people roughly…So…the people [of Israel]…rebelled against the house of David unto this day…there was none that followed the house of David, but the tribe of Judah only.” (I Kings 4-12)
- Benefiting future generations: In 2015 Mexican immigrants accounted for more than 1/4 of all US immigrants. What is seldom expressed in the polarized and inflammatory political discourse is that many Mexicans feel forced to leave their native country. The North American Free TradeAgreement (NAFTA) displaced more than five million agricultural workers from their land. Many Mexican immigrants who would prefer to stay home come to the US so that they can provide a better future for their children and future generations.
“…And Jacob sent and called Rachel and Leah to the field unto his flock, And said unto them, I see your father’s countenance, that it is not toward me as before…And ye know that with all my power I have served your father. And your father hath deceived me, and changed my wages ten times…And Rachel and Leah answered and said unto him, Is there yet any portion or inheritance for us in our father’s house? Are we not counted of him strangers? for he hath sold us, and hath quite devoured also our money. For all the riches which God hath taken from our father, that is ours, and our children’s: now then, whatsoever God hath said unto thee, do.” (Genesis 27:41-45, 31:4-16)
As these examples demonstrate, there is always, perhaps hiding behind apparatus like the Wizard of Oz, a Father-figure controlling access to his nation.
The subjects in the Roman Empire at the time the New Testament letters were written understood exactly the concepts Paul explained happened to those who put their faith in the Promised Savior Son of YHVH / Singularity / Creator through the records preserved by Judaism.
“God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law [of death to humans], To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons. And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. Wherefore thou art no more a servant / slave, but…an heir of God through Christ.“ (Galatians 4:4-7)
Modern Western nations are outgrowths of the Greco-Roman system where law, which has been defined as the “Art of Social Control”, reigns supreme and supercedes both religion and family.
“The chief captain commanded him to be brought into the castle, and bade that he should be examined by scourging…And as they bound him with thongs, Paul said unto the centurion that stood by, Is it lawful for you to scourge a man that is a Roman, and uncondemned? When the centurion heard that, he went and told the chief captain, saying, Take heed what thou doest: for this man is a Roman. Then the chief captain came, and said unto him, Tell me, art thou a Roman? He said, Yea. And the chief captain answered, With a great sum obtained I this freedom. And Paul said, [Na na nana na!] But I was free born. Then straightway they departed from him which should have examined him: and the chief captain also was afraid, after he knew that he was a Roman, and because he had bound him.” (Acts 22:24-29)
The word “republic” derives from the Latin noun-phrase res publica (thing of the people), which referred to the system of government that emerged in the 6th century BCE following the expulsion of the kings from Rome...
The concept of a republic became a powerful force in…the American Revolution. In Europe, it gained enormous influence through the French Revolution and through the First French Republicof 1792-1804.
Nationalism is a modern movement…it was not until the end of the 18th century that nationalism began to be…one of the great, if not the greatest, single determining factors of modern history…the American and French revolutions may be regarded as its first powerful manifestations. After penetrating the new countries of Latin America, it spread in the early 19th century to central…eastern and southeastern Europe…Thus, the 19th century has been called the age of nationalism in Europe, while the 20th century witnessed the rise and struggle of powerful national movements throughout Asia and Africa.
This may account for the casual attitude towards God that American Christians have due to failing to understand the extreme depths and heights of his relationship as our Father, the requirements for adoption into his nation. and our responsibilities as citizen-warriors.
However, the original Gentile readers of Paul’s letters comprising our New Testament understood exactly what it meant to identify with his God. Even after the original autocratic rule of the King of the ethnic Romans was shrouded in Republican egalitarianism and Empire internationalism, “enrollment in a tribe remained an important part of…citizenship”. The legal process granting Roman rights and responsibilities was accomplished through adoption as sons, including the bestowal of the new tribal / national / gens name / identity.
The word gens is sometimes translated as “race”, or “nation”, meaning a people descended from a common ancestor…The oldest gents were said to have originated before the foundation of Rome (traditionally 753 BC) and claimed descent from mythological personages [gods and demigods] as far back as the Trojan War (traditionally ended 1184 BC) [during the time of the book of Judges]…The nomen gentilicium, or “gentile name”, was its distinguishing feature, for a Roman citizen’s nomen indicated his membership in a gens...
In theory, each gens functioned as a state within a state, governed by its own elders and assemblies, following its own customs, and carrying out its own religious rites. Certain cults were associates with specific gentes.
The gentile assemblies had the responsibility of adoption and guardianship for their members.
Scrrrreeeech! Slam on the brakes! Did you just catch that? “Gentile assemblies!”
“To the general assembly and church of the firstborn, which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect,” (Hebrews 12:23)
Gentile originally meant a descendant of Japheth, but by the time of the Roman Empire “Gentile” meant any person from any nationality / race who had become a citizen in the Roman Empire.
The significance of that is just loaded.