3) Time: Uniformitarianism Or Catastrophism?

Traditional…geologists held that the catastrophes described in the Bible, such as Noah’s flood, had actually taken place and caused many of the signs of geological change that could be seen. This view was known as catastrophism.

Traditional Christian views held that the world started with its Creation…[But] 6000 years was not enough time for [evolutionary processes to develop into] the incredible diversity of life in the world...

Hutton (1726–1797) was a Scottish farmer…In his observations of the world around him [his farm], he became convinced natural processes, such as mountain building and erosion, occurred slowly over time through geologic forces that have been at work since Earth first formed. He eventually turned his observations and ideas into what became known as the Principle of Uniformitarianism

These 18th century philosophical contemplations by a Scottish farmer plowing his fields or bringing his cattle home cannot possibly be considered “scientific observations.” This “Principle” does not even rise to the level of a hypothesis. 

To understand how the ideas of a lowly farmer could effect such massive changes in entrenched religious views, we need to place his ideas in the context of his time – the Renaissance.

The Renaissance is often envisioned in terms of Italy’s resurgence of magnificent art. But the workhorse printing press is what truly resurrected medieval society back to knowing, and emulating:

the glory that was Greece,
And the grandeur that was Rome.
– Edgar Allan Poe, To Helen [of Troy]

What is this glory that was Greece and grandeur that was Rome?

Note, the following excerpt is not from a religious organization.

The best starting point to begin any cursory investigation into the Classical World is with the twin verse epics compiled by Homer…Iliad and Odyssey…between 1050 and 850 BC…

Much like contemporary Hollywood superheroes, in whom we see our own desires and appetites incarnated…The Greek and Roman deities…often appear astonishingly childish…Constantly swayed by anger, jealousy, resentment, and envy, they are prone to violent temper tantrums whenever they fail to get their own way. Zeus (Homer’s thundering “storm-bringer”) notoriously metamorphosed himself into various animal forms in order to impregnate a succession of unwitting and reluctant women…

the main aim of a religious cult was to ensure worldly success, not save people from sin…

the historian and ethnographer Herodotus (c. 490-425 BC)…traveled extensively…The theme of retribution and vengeance – that those who commit evil deeds will pay for them now or in the future – is deeply woven into Herodotus’ view of human action and historical causation. 

Alexander’s Lineage – the Missing Link [Trojan War from which both classical Greece and Rome are descended]

Through his mother Olympias, Alexander considered himself a direct descendant of Achilles [a demigod]…he used to sleep with a dagger and this private Iliad under his pillow, calling it his journey-book of excellence in war…Alexander lived out the poems he most preferred…

In his anguish, Achilles abuses the corpse of his enemy, until even the gods are appalled at his inhumanity…

Virgil’s Aeneid , which is modelled on both Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey , in almost obsessive detail and yet transforms them at every turn, begins and ends with anger. Instead of the mutual regard between Achilles and Priam that characterizes the final scene of the Iliad , Virgil chose to conclude with a duel between the champions on either side, Trojan and Latin: Aeneas [another demigod] slaughters Turnus in an access of fury…The scene has shocked and disturbed many readers, for the chilling violence with which Virgil elected to end his poem…Why has Virgil outdone Homer in the ferocity of the ending?

the enduring appeal of sex and violence provides a contiguous thread throughout the history of Ancient Greece and Rome, raising issues…and questions that remain relevant to many contemporary controversies and conflicts.

erotic tales…permeated the world of Greek and Roman mythology

At Greek drinking parties (‘symposia’), the only women in attendance were slave girls and the high point was drinking wine afterwards…[Greek and Roman males] had sexual relations with one another..such couplings were…broadly acknowledged as simple facts of life.

Judging by the available evidence, the human appetite for sexual license is matched only by a concomitant lust for gruesome depictions of violence…

mass carnage…took place…on a regular basis…

The setting of wild beasts against men and other animals may have provided exotic kicks, but it was the the Imperial Games that drew the biggest crowds as each emperor vied to surpass his predecessor in staging grandiose scenes of indiscriminate slaughter…Emperors were well advised to provide suitably gruesome entertainment for their avid audiences, because crowds as vast as 150,000 in the Circus Maximus could use the occasion to shout out specific complaints or praises at their ruler…punishments began to be staged in outlandish mythical or fantasy styles.

Sex and violence presented together clearly provided a highly arousing combination. Fans went wild for particularly virile stars…it was a small step at Rome to stage the myth of Pasiphae, who squatted inside a wooden cow and had sex with a bull…

Caligula enjoyed playing the role of gladiator himself, while Claudius was known to be particularly fond of a bloody fight to the finish…When [Nero’s wife was] kicked to death by Nero, he picked the freedman who looked most like her, had him castrated, and used him for sex instead…after personally fighting ostriches in the arena, Commodus (177-192) cut off their necks and advanced on the senators in their special seats…gesticulated at the Senators as though their necks might be next.

Renaissance artists clearly knew what their audiences liked and satisfied this appetite for cruelty by depicting buckets of gore, suppurating gashes, and the extremities of torture.

It took the Puritan Reformation to put a stop to such voyeuristic pleasures being purveyed in churches

The war banner of the Reformers was “Know the Truth, And the Truth Will Set You Free.”

Martin Luther struck the first blows against the corruption of both the medieval Roman Catholic Church and the Renaissance of sex and violence. How? Simply by empowering ordinary people to read the Bible for themselves, where they could discover individual freedom from both religious tyranny and “lusts of the flesh”, what we currently call addictions to physical drives leading to self- and other-destructive behaviors like substance and sexual abuse.

Martin Luther became the world’s first best-selling author. In the seven years from 1518 to 1525, Luther’s writings accounted for a third of all books sold in Germany and his German language Bible went through more than 430 editions. 

This kicked off a frenzy of translating the Bible into the national languages with a resultant surge of Bible adherents breaking away from Catholic dictates. 

Having Bibles wasn’t enough, they needed to be read by individuals, not pontificated from pulpits to gullible followers. In an age when literacy rates were 1% for the common people, Martin Luther advocated state-funded free education of all social levels, for both boys and girls. This policy elevated Germany to the heights of academic and scientific scholarship.

“In the nineteenth century the Germany university was the most admired institution of higher education in the western world.

As literacy and education rates among Protestants rose, they began out-earning their Catholic counterparts. Five centuries after Luther, that earning gap persists.

So powerfully did Luther’s influence reverberate down through the ages that, during a visit to Germany in 1934, Rev. Michael King Sr. chose to change both his and his son’s name to Martin Luther King. MLK Jr…. [the] namesake of the great German reformer would make full use of the power of free speech in catalyzing the American civil rights movement…

John Knox the 16th century Scottish…is remembered mainly for his reform of the Scottish church / kirk but he also made a significant contribution to the reform of education, which has lasted until the present day and has impacted on other contexts.

Ironically, Hutton was the product of the Reformer’s success in empowering all men and women to read to “know the truth”. He chose to go to the Dark Side.

aj2yxiq89xs31France was the first Renaissance nation to grow into Rome’s predator apex civilization. In 1789 the French Revolution began by denying religion altogether. Accepting only what the senses could “scientifically” experience, it set up the atheistic Cult of Reason. Proclaiming Renaissance humanistic ideals, it replaced the Hebrew 7 day work week with Rome’s 10-day work week, and sacred days of worship with pagan sensual festivals. Robespierre, one of the most influential leaders of the revolution, detested the amoral culture spawned by atheism. Believing, like Nietzsche did later, that belief in a god was necessary to achieve the virtue essential to a Republican form of government, Robespierre replaced the Cult of Reason by the Cult of the Supreme Being. Within the year Robespierre was executed, and his religious reformation wiped out. 

perhaps his compatriot the Comte de Mirabeau was closer to the mark when he acidly observed, “Liberty’s a bitch who likes to be fucked on a mattress of corpses.

liberty-leading-the-people-during-the-french-revolution-war-is-hell-store-canvas-print-1

 Promising enlightenment through scientific discoveries, freedom from religious dogma, and political democracy for all classes, the French Revolution rapidly degenerated into an orgy of blood, not just for France, but for most of continental Europe under the first of two lowly privates catapulted to Supreme Dictator of the reorganized Roman Empire seized from the Church.

Like Charlemagne before him, Napoleon crowned himself Emperor in the presence of the Pope. This enhanced Napoleon’s intended impression, that he was the highest authority in France, more powerful than the Church. Like August Caesar before him, he already had absolute power through his position of First Consul for Life. Unlike Caesar, by doing this, Napoleon did away with the flimsy illusion of the Republic. Napoleon further undid any democratic reforms of the Revolution by re-establishing the French aristocracy, the French Court, and granting titles and land to those that served him well throughout his campaigns.

The second, of course, was Hitler with his Third Reich. Once again, with the Pope’s approval.

In July 1933, Hitler and Pope Pius XI signed a concordat, or treaty... 

On the face of it, the Vatican had scored a great triumph…

Hitler had even more reason to be satisfied. The concordat was his first international agreement, and it vastly enhanced his respectability in Germany and abroad. 

817106This is the recurring pattern whenever God is eliminated from society. As even atheist Nietzsche endorsed, the reality of freedom without an absolute moral foundation inevitably translates into one law “to rule them all” – Might Makes Right.

AKA Survival of the Fittest.

Charles Lyell (1797–1875) was a contemporary of Charles Darwin who grasped at Hutton’s concept of gradually changing processes shaping Earth’s surface. He handpicked his own examples of these processes in rocks and sediments, and in 1830 published a book, Principles of Geology. The combined efforts of Lyell and Hutton became the foundation of modern geology. 

That’s remarkable. Modern geology was founded by a idea published in 1830. How scientific can that be? Especially after reviewing Lyell’s professional credentials and discovering that his geological observations were at best a hobby, and that it was his social and political connections – like his friend Darwin – that set him up by Britain’s Miliitary Industrial Complex to underwrite a new “scientific” explanation of time. 

That is just ironic. He experiences a catastrophe requiring intervention.

In contrast to the extremely limited musings of 19th century philosophical hobbyists, what does science have to say about time?

The human mind has long grappled with the elusive nature of time: what it is, how to record it, how it regulates life, and whether it exists as a fundamental building block of the universe…

The French scientist Sadi Carnot proved…what came to be known as the second law of thermodynamics…entropy (the amount of disorder) must always increase. The fact that things get more disordered — but never the other way around — appears to lend a directionality to time…

Why does time appear to flow in just one direction? In The Nature of the Physical World, the British physicist Arthur Eddington…wrote:

If as we follow the arrow we find more and more of the random element in the state of the world, then the arrow [of time] is pointing towards the future; if the random element decreases the arrow points towards the past. That is the only distinction known to physics.”

Physicists agree that time had a beginning

In his special theory of relativity, Albert Einstein showed that…measurements of time depend on the motion of each observer. An exception is the speed of light, which is seen to have the same value by everyone (about 300,000 km per second). The theory also implies that the speed of light is the ultimate speed limit for the universe…

In 1988 The British physicist Stephen Hawking published A Brief History of TimeHawking identified three distinct “arrows of time”: a psychological arrow (underpinning our memories of the past and how we imagine the future), a thermodynamic arrow (the direction in which entropy [chaos] increases), and a cosmological arrow (the direction in which the size of the universe increases).

If time = increased chaos, how can Evolution claim that eons of time increased the organization of first atoms, then molecules, then cells, then organisms, then plant and animals and finally the highly organized ecosystem we have today?

It can’t.

interdependence-in-ecosystems-n

So uniformitarianism was invented as an unscientific belief system with the specific objective of supporting evolution by allocating millions of years for extremely slow changes to occur.

Lyell…was a close friend of Charles Darwin, and contributed significantly to Darwin’s thinking on the processes involved in evolution. As Darwin wrote in On the Origin of Species, “He who can read Sir Charles Lyell’s grand work on the Principles of Geology, which the future historian will recognise as having produced a revolution in natural science, yet does not admit how incomprehensibly vast have been the past periods of time, may at once close this volume [On the Origin of Species]. “

What has Uniformitarianistic Geology discovered in the past 200 years. 

anyone-bueller-bueller

What about Catastrophic Geology?

In 1883, Krakatau’s explosion caused a century of climate chaos

Krakatau has been extremely active for hundreds of years. In August 1883, it erupted to stupendous effect, obliterating its three islands, and killing tens of thousands of people.

The sound of the eruption alone is said to have been the largest heard in modern history. The noise was heard as far as 3,000 miles…the equivalent of a blast in Dublin being heard in New York. Half the crew of British ship some 40 miles away reported having their ear drums “shattered”—if they had been closer, they might well have been killed by the force of the sound alone…

the subsequent tsunami…reached over a hundred feet (30 meters) in height, sweeping 165 coastal villages and settlements out to sea. The wave is said to have traveled around the globe three and a half times at astonishing speed, causing tsunamis as far as South Africa and flinging huge chunks of coral reef onto the land as it went. Some of these sections of coral weighed as much as 600 tons (about 540,000 kilograms).

The official death toll recorded by Dutch authorities was 36,417, though some modern estimates put it at three or four times the total. There was a lasting effect on the world’s climate, too: aerosols emitted into the atmosphere by the blast led global air temperatures to drop by as much as 2.2 degrees Fahrenheit (1.2 degrees Celsius). According to a 2006 article in the journal Nature, the volcano caused oceans to cool for as much as a century, offsetting the effect of human activity on ocean temperatures. If the volcano had not erupted, the authors argue, our sea levels might be much higher than they are today…

the super-volcano at its heart continues to bubble away… it’s simply a matter of time.

worldvol

Climate change widespread, rapid, and intensifying – IPCC

Scientists are observing changes in the Earth’s climate in every region and across the whole climate system, according to the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Report, released today. Many of the changes observed in the climate are unprecedented in thousands, if not hundreds of thousands of years, and some of the changes already set in motion—such as continued sea level rise—are irreversible over hundreds to thousands of years…

The Working Group I contribution to the Sixth Assessment Report addresses the most up-to-date physical understanding of the climate system and climate change,bringing together the latest advances in climate science, and combining multiple lines of evidence from paleoclimate, observations, process understanding, and global and regional climate simulations.

Weird how the same people who recognize the need to combine multiple lines of scientific evidence to  assess catastrophic climate change in the present yet cling to the principles of uniformitarianism in the past. Its as if they believe humans make the only impacts (heads up, that’s another pun) on earth.

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The Tunguska Impact–100 Years Later

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“[T]he generally agreed upon theory is that on the morning of June 30, 1908, a large space rock, about 120 feet across, entered the atmosphere of Siberia and then detonated in the sky.”

It is estimated the asteroid entered Earth’s atmosphere traveling at a speed of about 33,500 miles per hour. During its quick plunge, the 220-million-pound space rock heated the air surrounding it to 44,500 degrees Fahrenheit. At 7:17 a.m. (local Siberia time), at a height of about 28,000 feet, the combination of pressure and heat caused the asteroid to fragment and annihilate itself, producing a fireball and releasing energy equivalent to about 185 Hiroshima bombs…

ATLAS is an asteroid impact early warning system being developed by the University of Hawaii and funded by NASA. It consists of two telescopes, 100 miles apart, which automatically scan the whole sky several times every night looking for moving objects.  

ATLAS will provide one day’s warning for a 30-kiloton “town killer,” a week for a 5-megaton “city killer,” and three weeks for a 100-megaton “county killer”…

Watch ATLAS make observations in real time

      ATLAS on Haleakala
      ATLAS on Maunaloa

Astronomers all across the world check this webpage every night…to calculate the asteroids’ orbits and determine if they could threaten Earth.

Meanwhile, the Scout Hazard Assessment webpage maintained by NASA-JPL’s Center for Near Earth Object Studies interprets the observations using sophisticated computer programs, checking for immediate threats and requesting further measurements of asteroids whose orbits remain uncertain. Both websites are publicly accessible to anyone in the world.

Major asteroid hit on Earth is well overdue

The Earth is long overdue for a visit from space…by great chunks of rock. New research related to what caused the 1.2 km wide hole in the ground at Meteor Crater in the Arizona desert is a reminder…

meteor20crater-nations

The study, published in the journal Science…suggest the impactor was travelling at about 20 kilometres per second (45,000 m.p.h.) when it hit, delivering energy equivalent to a 20 to 40 megaton bomb…

Earth-crossing asteroids of this size are predicted to reach us every 1,600 years or so. Most would strike the oceans, but such a meteor might slam into a land mass every 6,000 years on average.

No mathematician is needed to realise that we seem long overdue for our next visit. The recent disaster movies about cataclysmic impacts with asteroids or comets all assume an object of one to two kilometres across. 

Maybe it would be wise to revisit reports of geological catastrophes to determine if current geological evidence validates them?

From the Revelation of St. John the Divine, chapter 4:1-2 and chapter 6, v 12-14.

“behold, a door was opened in heaven: and the first voice which I heard…said, Come up hither, and I will shew thee things which must be hereafter. And immediately I was in the spirit / pure energy, hyper dimensional composition…in heaven…And I beheld when…lo, there was a great earthquake; and the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became as blood…And the stars of heaven fell unto the earth, even as a fig tree casteth her untimely figs, when she is shaken of a mighty wind. And the heaven departed as a scroll when it is rolled together; and every mountain and island were moved out of their places.”

And here is where casual acceptance of godless evolutionary Uniformitarianism is proven to be a death trap. 

Biblical warnings about a catastrophic end to the world can, and should, be trusted because they have been both reliably reported as past history in the Bible, and validated by geological science. 

“And the LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed…And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads.

meregionmapriverovertrace

  1. The name of the first is Pison: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold…
  2. And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. 
  3. And the name of the third river is Hiddekel:
  4. that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates.” (Genesis 2:8-14)

The Spring of Gihon in Jerusalem identifies the location of the headwaters of all four rivers.

This is consistent with locating the entirety of Eden west of the the famous garden, currently located under the Medi-terra-nean / Middle of the Earth Sea.

Validation of this Hebrew documentation is found in other ancient lore.

The term “Middle Earth” was not invented by Tolkien. Rather, it comes from Middle English middel-erde, itself a folk-etymology for the Old English word middangeard (geard not meaning Earth, but rather enclosure or place, thus yard, with the Old Norse word miðgarðr being a cognate). It is Germanic for what the Greeks called the οικουμένη (oikoumenē) or “the abiding place of men”, the physical world as opposed to the unseen worlds (The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, 151). The word Mediterranean comes from two Latin stems, medi- , amidst, and terra, (earth/land), meaning “the sea placed at the middle of the Earth / amidst the lands”.

Middangeard occurs six times in Beowulf, which Tolkien translated and on which he was arguably the world’s foremost authority. (See also J. R. R. Tolkien for discussion of his inspirations and sources). See Midgard and Norse mythology for the older use.

Tolkien was also inspired by this fragment:

Hail Earendel, brightest of angels / above the middle-earth sent unto men.

in the “Crist” poem by Cynewulf. The name earendel (which may mean the ‘morning-star’ but in some contexts was a name for Christ) was the inspiration for Tolkien’s mariner Eärendil.

“Middle-earth” was consciously used by Tolkien to place The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion, and related writings.

“But hey!” you say. “These four rivers don’t begin at Jerusalem!”  

They used to, as reported accurately at the time of their beginning. These water courses changed during sudden catastrophic shifts in the earth’s crust in the earliest stages of recorded human history.

Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and unto them were sons born after the flood…The children of Shem: Arphaxad…And Arphaxad begat Salah; and Salah begat Eber…And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided.” (Genesis 10:1, 22-25)

dizzyvibrantatlanticblackgoby-size_restricted

[Earth’s] crust and tectonic movement created helped redirect the water movement in…different ways and eventually reversed the flow of many of the rivers…[including] the course of the Amazon River flowing backwards.

The Great Rift, which begins in Syria between the Lebanon [Mountains] and Anti-Lebanon [Mountains]…continues through the continent of Africa as far as Zimbabwe…

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[humanity] witnessed the latest phases of widespread tectonic movements…modifying notably the courses of the rivers…along the entire length of the Rift.

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The deepest place in the Rift on land is in the valley of the Jordan and the Dead Sea…

An inscription of Thutmose I reads: “Frontier northern [of Egypt], as far as that inverted water which goeth down in going up [emphasis added].”…The river that reversed its direction is the Jordan…

And the Nile, like the Jordan, is documented as having changed directions. “There was indeed a widespread belief in ancient times that the Nile and the Euphrates ‘were but different portions of the same stream’”

Archeology supports the geological evidence that the biblical account of the original flows of the four key rivers in the Levant with the discovery of the most ancient human large gathering sites. These were found at the high point of the two waterways providing the standard of rapid transportation to and from the “cradle of civilization”.

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Geological surveys show that the area called Eden in the book of Genesis was covered by a massive flood.

The Mediterranean Sea was formed by the most spectacular flood in Earth’s history when water from the Atlantic Ocean breached the mountain range joining Europe and Africa with the force of a thousand Amazon rivers, scientists say…

The deluge was triggered…by subsidence [dropping] in the seabed [the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up Genesis 7:11] that caused a land ridge between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean basin to collapse…

As water began to pour across the strait , it eroded the ridge until the flow became a catastrophic deluge. At the time, the Mediterranean basin was an almost entirely dry expanse of low lying land, between 1.5km and 2.7km beneath today’s sea level.

The surge of water created a channel several kilometres wide that would become the Strait of Gibraltar…

A team led by Garcia-Castellanos used data from boreholes and seismic surveys in the area to reconstruct the deluge conditions in a computer model.

Subsidence in the sea floor at the strait allowed…a powerful surge that filled 90% of the Mediterranean very rapidly – between a few months [forty days and forty nights Genesis 7:12] and two years.

According to a controversial theory proposed by two Columbia University scientists…the now-salty Black Sea was once an isolated freshwater lake surrounded by farmland, until it was flooded by an enormous wall of water from the rising Mediterranean Sea. The force of the water was two hundred times that of Niagara Falls, sweeping away everything in its path…

Ballard and his team [noted for finding the Titanic]…”went in there to look for…Not just a slow moving, advancing rise of sea level, but a really big flood that then stayed… The land that went under stayed under.”

Four hundred feet below the surface, they unearthed an ancient shoreline, proof to Ballard that a catastrophic event did happen in the Black Sea. By carbon dating shells found along the shoreline, Ballard said he believes they have established a timeline for that catastrophic event, which he estimates happened around 5,000 BC. Some experts believe this was around the time when Noah’s flood could have occurred.

“It probably was a bad day,” Ballard said. “At some magic moment, it broke through and flooded this place violently, and a lot of real estate, 150,000 square kilometers of land, went under…”

“The earlier Mesopotamian stories are very similar where the gods are sending a flood to wipe out humans,” said biblical archaeologist Eric Cline. “There’s one man they choose to survive. He builds a boat and brings on animals and lands on a mountain and lives happily ever after? I would argue that it’s the same story.”

Catastrophic events of this kind are not unique to the Bible. Some contemporary examples include the 2004 tsunami that wiped out villages on the coasts of 11 countries surrounding the Indian Ocean.

14970839_bg1As noted in the geological articles above and below, and as experienced in everyday life, “breached dams always fall catastrophically.”

The alarm that Harlan Bretz and Joseph Pardee caused in the early 20th century by proposing that 500 cubic miles of water eroded the Grand Coulee and scablands of eastern Washington State illustrates the crisis evolutionists have encountered. This flood from ancient glacial Lake Missoula in Montana emptying in 48 hours would have been half the volume of Lake Michigan!

Secularists readily perceived the implications of accepting this. If a catastrophe explains the geologic formations in Washington, Idaho, and Montana, then will a quick washout be found for the Grand Canyon? And then, what about the 2½ average miles of sedimentary layers around the earth which have evidence of catastrophic burial…

course-of-the-colorado-river-aab81f31-d59f-4d4b-bdb9-8daff672146-resize-750

map-893x1024-1Indeed, evidence of a water source has been found upstream from the Grand Canyon…a computer-generated shoreline reveals that a body of water holding 3,000 cubic miles of water could have been retained…three times the volume of Lake Michigan…

The Grand Canyon is a channel cut through what is called the “Kaibab upwarp.”

If the Grand Canyon were filled [with rock] today, large lakes would form in the Colorado plateau basin to the northeast. Silt and mud layers are evidence of a large lake in eastern Arizona, also called ancient “Hopi Lake…” When Hopi Lake breached its dam through the Kaibab upwarp, this would have destabilized the larger lake…called Canyonlands Lake. When this lake breached its dam and cut out Marble Canyon, it would have been followed by Vernal Lake to the north, cutting a channel through Book media_map_figure-300x300-1cliffs. Or this could have happened in reverse.

All these lakes emptying through the Grand Canyon would have cut it down…as we see it today. The delta deposits are along the Arizona/California border. These sediments create the rise that separates the Salton Sea trough, which is below sea level, from the Gulf of California in Mexico…

Breached dams always fall catastrophically. When water floods over a dam and erodes one foot, that is one-foot-deep water coming from the whole lake! Fast-moving volumes of water have phenomenal erosion power…

A good modern example of hydraulic force was demonstrated in 1983 when heavy snowmelts threatened the Glen Canyon Dam above the Grand Canyon. Engineers were releasing 93,000 cubic feet of water per second to keep the dam from overtopping. When they raised the release rate of one 40-foot spillway tunnel to 32,000 cubic feet per second, suddenly large chunks of concrete and bedrock were thrown from the tube as the water turned red and the ground trembled. Immediately the tube was closed. Engineers found that the 3-foot steel-reinforced concrete wall was pitted and a cavity was cut at a bend 32 feet deep, 40 feet wide, and 150 feet long. It required 63,000 cubic feet of concrete to fill the hole. In the short time the water was running red (like the bedrock), it is estimated erosion was happening at 1,000 cubic feet per minute. [Emphasis added.]

In water flowing over 20 miles per hour strong hydraulic forces are generated. (The Lake Missoula flow was estimated at 200 feet deep and 60 miles per hour over dry falls). Cavitation, plucking, and kolks can pulverize and move rock rapidly.

Hydraulic plucking occurs when high-velocity flows rip loose blocks of bedrock and move it along. Cavitation takes place when fast-moving water, over irregular rock, detaches and generates vacuum bubbles. When they hit the surface and explode, it is like sledgehammer blows that can pulverize rock. Kolks are like underwater tornadoes. The force from the low-pressure vortex exerts extreme suction of bedrock. Sapping structures are also seen along the walls of the upper Grand Canyon when the land rapidly detached from the emptied lakes.

Evidence of these catastrophic forces at the Grand Canyon show that it did not take hundreds of thousands of years for the Colorado River to slowly wear down the Canyon. 

It would seem that, in addition to its utter lack of grounds (yes, that’s a pun) for acceptance as a legitimate theory, uniformitarianism has in fact been disproved.

Catastrophism is a reality. Are you prepared to face it? Or will you be among those who will cry out “to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb: For the great day of his wrath is come; and who shall be able to stand?” (Revelation 6:16-17)

 

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