6) The Space Race Is The Arms Race

The space race was a series of competitive technology demonstrations between the United States and the Soviet Union…

On both sides, a great deal of time and resources went into the development of rockets and…the advancements made within each national space program were inexorably tied to the development of nuclear weapons.

Space is a battleground for dominance among major powers. About a fifth of all satellites belong to the military and are used for spying.

the Union of Concerned Scientists monitors satellite activity and…lists…America’s 154 military satellites, and…others listed as “military / civil” or “military / government,” which means, if you count them all together, there are between 339 and 485 military satellites in total…

Russia is known to have 71 military satellites, and China 63.

f you believe that militaristic governments – either the USSR or the USA – are transparent in all they do, well, we’re done here. But if you can believe that all governments keep military secrets, you should be able to be skeptical about what we’re told versus what’s really going on in space.

The Intelligence Community is made up of 18 elements that each focus on a different aspect of our common mission: Air Force Intelligence, Army Intelligence and Command, Central Intelligence Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Energy Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, Department of Homeland Security Office of Intelligence and Analysis, Department of State Office of Intelligence and Research, Department of Treasury Office of Intelligence and Analysis, Drug Enforcement Administration Intelligence Program, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Marine Corps Intelligence, National Geospatial Intelligence Agency, National Reconnaissance Agency, Office of Naval Intelligence, Office of the Director of National Intelligence, U.S. Coast Guard Intelligence, U.S. Space Force.

The Intelligence Community’s mission is to collect, analyze, and deliver foreign intelligence and counterintelligence information to America’s leaders so they can make sound decisions to protect our country. Our customers include the president, policy-makers, law enforcement, and the military.

Note, the public are not among their customers.

When the President needs the latest intelligence analysis, he reviews the President’s Daily Brief. When the public needs information, they can rely on the Public’s Daily Brief.

How much the public can “rely on” our version of intelligence news for the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth can be assessed by scanning a few declassified projects listed below. Creating a timeline of significant events is helpful for determining where we’re at today.

1956 – President Eisenhower initiated the secret Corona satellite reconnaissance program managed jointly by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the US Air Force (USAF), as a concerted response to several significant Soviet advances in space technologies…By May 1958, the DoD had transferred the program to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the same agency responsible for helping create DARPANET- the forerunner of the Internet…The primary goal of the program was to…assess how rapidly the Soviet Union was producing long-range bombers and ballistic missiles and where they were being deployed, and to take photos over the Sino-Soviet bloc…The goal of the program was not revealed to the public at the time; it was presented as a program…to test satellite subsystems and investigate the communication and environmental aspects of placing humans in space…In all, 38 Discoverer satellites were launched by February 1962, although the satellite reconnaissance program continued until 1972 as the CORONA project. The program documents were declassified in 1995.”

1957 – The Soviet Union sent the first satellite to space with Sputnik 1 reaching altitude of 583 miles.

1958 – The United States reacted by creating NASAbelatedly launching Explorer I which reached a maximum altitude of 1,563 miles, and initiating Project Mercury to put the first man into space.

1959 – The National Reconnaissance Office / NRO was established as a classified agency in the U.S. Department of Defense in charge of designing, building, launching, and maintaining America’s intelligence satellites. The existence of the NRO and its mission were not declassified until 1992. The NRO is funded through the National Intelligence Program (NIP) and the Military Intelligence Program (MIP).

1961 – In April Russian cosmonaut Yuri A. Gagarin reached 187 miles in altitude and completed a single orbit around the Earth. A month later American astronaut Alan Shepard  was rocketed skyward but only to 116 miles and plummeted right back to earth.

1962 – In February John Glen became the first American in a ship equipped with an engine and enough fuel to maintain 17,000 mph against gravity’s pull to orbit around the earth, but only 3 orbits for 5 hours. In August Gherman Titov made 17 orbits and spent more than 25 hours in space.

1962 – the first communications satellite, Syncom II enhances U.S. military communications. The first of eight space telescopes launched successfully into low Earth orbit, (below 1,200 miles altitude) by NASA between 1962 and 1975. Space telescopes point towards outer space, so are distinct from Earth imaging satellites, which point toward Earth. I’m sure the Russians accept that clarification and ignore any surveillance of where “space” telescopes are pointed.

1963 – Director of CIA created the Panel for Future Satellite Reconnaissance Operations, to be briefed on the various technologies that people in the optics field believed could have a major impact on the development of reconnaissance satellites. You mean, optics like in telescopes?

1963 – 1971 – GAMBIT 1, GAMBIT 3 and the HEXAGON system satellites became America’s eyes in space. The declassification of GAMBIT and HEXAGON was announced on September 17, 2011. I think we can all agree that this was announced more to America’s enemies during the response to 9/11/2011 than to the American public. But one does have to wonder, how did a terrorist attack get past all the intel received by all the intelligence agencies staffed by the U.S?

1963 – 1969 – “The U.S. Air Force’s MOL [Manned Orbiting Laboratory] programspent $1.56 billion…“Is the MOL a laboratory?” reads one of the newly released [declassified] documents. “Or is it an operational reconnaissance spacecraft? (Or a bomber?)” Even today, aspects of the MOL initiative remain secret with a superpowerful camera system that could acquire photographic coverage better than the best unmanned system at the time, the Gambit spacecraftBut the historical documents suggest numerous other jobs were on the MOL docket, including the use of side-looking radar, the evaluation of electronic intelligence-gathering gear and the assembly and servicing of large structures in space…the use of MOL-carrying “negation missiles” that would use non-nuclear warheads, the inspection of satellites, and the encapsulation and recovery of enemy spacecraft, which may have been accomplished using rocket-propelled net devices.

1965 – Project Aquiline envisioned a fleet of 12 bird-shaped drones, powered by nuclear energy, that could stay aloft for up to a month. One of the most complicated—technical espionage efforts of the Cold War, it was never completed. The CIA recently declassified and posted documents pertaining to Project Aquiline.

1969 – 1971 – D21 drones fly at a max speed of mach 3.35 at an altitude of 95K feet with a range of 3500 miles to collect imagery over denied territory, such as 1970’s Sinai crisis between Israelis and Arab forces.

1971 – present – the first electro-optical imagery (EOI) reconnaissance satellite  using digital imaging, and so offering real-time optical observations approved by President Nixon. With the rapid development of this technology there were multiple iterations named KENNEN, later renamed CRYSTAL, Evolved Enhanced CRYSTAL SystemKey Hole then a random numbering scheme. The capabilities of the KH-11 are highly classified, as are images they produce. The satellites are believed to have been the source of some imagery of the Soviet Union and China made public in 1997; images of Sudan and Afghanistan made public in 1998 related to the response to the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings; and a 2019 photo, revealed by President Donald Trump, of a failed Iranian rocket launch.

Since the beginning of NRO, there were clashes with the CIA and between the CIA and defense contractors over control of projects. Itek, which had developed the CORONA camera, argued against the CIA’s requirement for a system capable of scanning the full 120 degrees. In 1965 Itek canceled their contract with the CIA, their biggest customer, stating that they could not operate in the “immoral environment” under “the domination of the CIA.” The NRO had promised Itek work on the newly-approved massive reconnaissance camera being developed for the Manned Orbiting Laboratory and eventually designated the KH-10 DORIAN. This project, however, was terminated in 1969 after evaluating its cost of $8 billion in today’s dollars, with still several years before operation. Six mirrors up to 8 feet across were mothballed.

1970’s – design, approval and funding of Hubble Telescope with an intended launch of 1983, ultimately delayed for 7 years until 1990. It was not the first space telescope, but it is one of the largest and most versatile,

1990 – 1993 – Hubble inoperable due to a flaw in the 7.8 ft diameter mirrorOne must surely consider that mirror came from NRO’s store room.  And one must surely consider that NRO got paid for that contribution, if it wasn’t an outright silent partner. Surely we should expect that! An alternate theory to the flawed mirror, which shouldn’t be considered wildly conspiratorially theorist, is that Hubble spent its first years providing intel for NRO.

1993 – telescope was repaired by the Space Shuttle Endeavour crew

1997 – Servicing Mission 2, flown by Discovery.  

1999 – Servicing Mission 3A, flown by Discovery. 

  • 2002 – fourth servicing mission to Hubble canceled and further missions paused halted after loss of all seven astronauts / technicians aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. 
  • 2003 – An estimated repair cost of $1 billion on Hubble was determined to be too expensive and was not done. Hubble was planned to be retired by 2010.
  • 2009 – Director of National Intelligence and the Department of Defense (DoD) issued a joint press release saying they have put together a plan “to modernize the nation’s ageing satellite-imagery architecture by prudently evolving government-owned satellite designs and enhancing use of U.S. commercial providers.

Ah, yes. Eisenhower’s military-industrial complex.

In this way the technological advances in civilian imagery have turned full circle back into imagery provision for the military- very much dependent on the motives and aspirations of the military user.

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That’s a problem, and it raises a shocking question – are we being deliberately deceived as to the shape of the earth?

Landsat’s “image from space” matches the familiar shape we know from the old Rand McNally maps.

But we now know that shape is incorrect.

Why doesn’t Landsat’s image match the corrected shape based on the AuthaGraph projection map, formated in 1999 by Japanese architect Hajime Narukawa, and one of the most innovative approaches to mapping today. The projection largely preserves the relative area of landmasses and oceans, and limits the distortion of their shapes.

It seems to me that Eisenhower’s military-industrial complex is shielding something from view of us commoners.

Is Hubble Really Exploring Outer Space or Doing Something Else Entirely?

Why does NASA “have to” photoshop an image from Hubble’ non-visual instruments when there are so many satellites above earth that do have cameras functioning in the visible spectrum? 

Sounds to me like there is something that military governments don’t want us to see.

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The National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI), an agency of the United States government, manages one of the world’s largest archives of atmospheric…data

NCEI is operated by the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service(NESDIS), an office of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which operates under the U.S. Department of Commerce.

NESDIS has managed…operational geosynchronous satellites (GOES) satellites since 1974.

Visible image - Click to enlargeGeostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellites (GOES) provide continuous images of the same area on Earth 24 hours a day. They hover over a single point above the Earth’s equatorat an altitude of about 36,000 kilometers (22,300 miles). This is about one-tenth of the way to the moon…

Visible imagery is just like the name suggests; an image of the earth in visible light. This is what you would see with your eyes if you could ride on a satellite. As you might imagine, thicker clouds do a better job of reflecting light and appear brighter in visible images.

If GOES can take a visible image of the earth from 22,300 miles above earth why can’t Hubble or one of NASA’s other many space telescopes or the Space Station at only 350 – 400 miles?

Scoff you may, but who is the fool? The sceptic, or the blind believer? Why would any intelligent person unquestionably believe a government known for lying to the public, specifically during this era? Rather than shout down conspiracy theorists, we should be grateful for those who question if the most powerful government in history is being honest.

Remember Woodward and Bernstein in the same era? No?

On June 18, 1972, a Washington Post front page story reported the previous day’s break-in at the Democratic National Committee’s office in the Watergate complex in Washington, DC….The White House dismissed the crime as a “third-rate burglary,” and much of the nation’s media soon dropped interest in what some jokingly referred to as “the Watergate caper.” But two of the reporters who worked on that first Washington Post story, Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, continued tracking down sources and pursuing leads on what became the biggest story of twentieth-century American politics…

Eventually, in an October 10, 1972 story, Woodward and Bernstein were able to disclose in detail that the Watergate break-in was part of a larger effort to sabotage Nixon’s political opponents…

White House Press Secretary Ron Ziegler reacted with strong criticism to the story, questioning the methods and political motivations of the Washington Post and the two reporters. After Nixon’s re-election in November 1972, many thought the story would die…

On April 30, [1973] due to the mounting evidence of their personal involvement, Nixon’s Chief of Staff H. R. Haldeman, Domestic Affairs Advisor John Ehrlichman, and Attorney General Richard Kleindienst all resigned and Presidential Counsel John Dean was fired. At a press conference the following day, Press Secretary Ziegler apologized to Woodward, Bernstein, and the Washington Post for his previous criticism, admitting to the validity of their stories…

In February 1974, the House Judiciary Committee began impeachment hearings

Soon after Nixon’s resignation on August 9, 1974

I remember being a young child in the early 60’s, caught out in the open in southern Florida when the sirens blared out the Cuban Missile Crisis nuclear bomb warning. I was terrified as I raced home to get under shelter. I remember being an impressionable teenager in the late 60’s reading about the Viet Nam war on the front page of the newspaper every day. And then we lost to the Communists.

Can you possibly get out of your own mind and life and times and consider how much Communism influenced American emotions in both leadership and civilians desperate to feel safe in the immediate aftermath of the most brutal, most devastating, most terrifying war in history?

i-know-not-with-what-weapons-world-war-3-will-be-fought-but-world-war-4-will-be-fought-with-sticks-and-stones-2

rediceberg_cvr_510The Soviet Supreme leader was an incredibly ambitious man and hoped to expand the Soviet Empire, after the defeat of the Third Reich and the Empire of Japan. Stalin sought to achieve four specific objectives. After the calamity of World War Two, he wanted to ensure the security of the Soviet Union, the expansion of Communism beyond the Soviet Union, secure his position in world affairs and create of a Soviet empire. As he set out to secure each of these goals in the wake of World War two, he laid the foundations for the Cold War.

plakatIn the early 1950s, American leaders repeatedly told the public that they should be fearful of subversive Communist influence in their lives…lurking anywhere…to aid the program of world Communist domination… between 1950 and 1954…Senator Joe McCarthy of Wisconsin…launched a series of highly publicized probes into alleged Communist penetration of the State Department, the White House, the Treasury, and even the US Army…No one dared tangle with McCarthy for fear of being labeled disloyal. How easy was it to reassure a panicky American public that we achieved supremacy over the Communists through a Wizard of Oz magic show?

The argument is made that too many people were involved in the space program to keep such as major event as a faked moon landing a secret. Surely red-blooded patriotic Americans wouldn’t fake the moon landing!

Using our common sense, the exact opposite argument is more credible. It was their patriotism during the Red Scare that drove many Americans to conspire with American government agents in the Cold War.

The Department of Defense and the Atomic Energy Commission were thorough in their visual documentation…Dozens of photography and cinematography units were dispatched to various locations around the world, armed with almost every available type of still and film camera, in order to capture imagery that could be analyzed and used both for scientific and public-relations and storytelling purposes—the diagnostic and the documentary. For over two decades, the United States Air Force even operated a “secret,” 100,000-square-foot film studio in Los Angeles’s Laurel Canyon. At “Lookout Mountain,” teams of Hollywood craftspeople photographed, processed, edited, screened, and distributed images that ended up in everything from LIFE magazine photo spreads to newsreels and tourist postcards.

Not to mention the American Espionage Act.

on June 15, 1917, President Woodrow Wilson signed the bill into law. Officially titled “An act to punish acts of interference with the foreign relations, the neutrality and the foreign commerce of the United States, to punish espionage, and better to enforce the criminal laws of the United States, and for other purposes,” the law is more commonly known as the Espionage Act of 1917…

in the century after it became law, as its vague language about foreign espionage was re-interpreted as a broad prohibition against the activities of anti-war activists, whistleblowers and journalists…

The law — which remains on the books to this day, as Title 18, Part 1, Chapter 37 of the U.S. Code…outlaws the disclosure of any “information, documents or other articles relating to security or intelligence.”

the Espionage Act doesn’t just apply to government employees who violate their security clearances by providing sensitive national security information to foreign spies; it applies to any person who learns of such information and then communicates it to any other person.

Now let’s align Hubble’s history with world politics.

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A  Blueprint for World War III: NATO’s Plan to Crush the Soviet Union in Battle

Even before the guns fell silent in Europe in 1945, it became apparent to American and British planners that the Soviet Union would hold a massive advantage in land power along the Central front. In the early post-war years, Western planners hoped that nuclear weapons would keep the Soviets at bay. As the USSR’s own missile and nuclear programs accelerated, however, it became apparent that NATO would need to come to some understanding of how to fight Warsaw Pact [Soviet Union] forces.

  • 1946 – WWII Nazi rocket science seized as spoils of war by winners Russia and the US  permits the existing concept of a space-based telescope to be studied for practical implementation.

The aftermath of World War II saw much of Europe devastated in a way that is now difficult to envision. Approximately 36.5 million Europeans had died in the conflict, 19 million of them civilians. Refugee camps and rationing dominated daily life. In some areas, infant mortality rates were one in four. Millions of orphans wandered the burnt-out shells of former metropolises. In the German city of Hamburg alone, half a million people were homeless.

In addition, Communists aided by the Soviet Union were threatening elected governments across Europe. In February 1948, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with covert backing from the Soviet Union, overthrew the democratically elected government in that country.

The Nuclear Option

During the 1950s and 1960s, NATO and the Warsaw Pact agreed about two things regarding combat on the Central front. First, Warsaw Pact forces would quickly overrun NATO forces, achieving rates of advance across Western Europe that exceeded even those of World War II. Second, both NATO and the Warsaw Pact would make plentiful use of tactical nuclear weapons, both to break up enemy formations and also to pave the way for advancing forces…

  • 1957 – Arch enemy, Russia, launches the first successful artificial satellite.
  • 1958 – Congress passes the Space Act creating the National Aeronautics and Space Agency / NASA.
  • 1961 – In his farewell address, President Eisenhower, unable to slow the arms race, warned of the dangers posed by the growing influence of the “military-industrial complex.
  • 1968 – The most tenacious anti-war movement in U.S. history, beginning with the start of the bombing of North Vietnam in 1964 and radicalizing hundreds of thousands of young people, climaxes in 1968, forcing an end U.S. combat operations against Communist forces in Vietnam and a suspension of the draft by January 1973.
  • 1969 – The National Academy of Sciences publishes “Scientific [clearly as opposed to Military] Uses of the Large Space Telescope.”
  • 1980s –  Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), AKA “Star Wars,” a space-based shield designed to shoot down nuclear missiles in space. President Reagan: ““I call upon the scientific community in our country, those who gave us nuclear weapons, to turn their great talents now…to give us the means of rendering these nuclear weapons impotent and obsolete.”

The Rise of AirLand Battle

First published in 1982, and further developed in 1986, AirLand Battle…envisioned a simultaneous set of attacks deep inside an enemy position, using long-range artillery, airstrikes, and paratroopers… precision guided munitions.

  • 1990 – Hubble Space Telescope launched.

Think I’m a rabid conspiracy theorist?

Surely! Surely! A military-run government agency like NASA wouldn’t cover up what they’re really doing by deliberately leaking false information to the media?

Wait, we are talking military secrets here, aren’t we? Spreading misinformation to gain a military advantage is a common strategy.

But! How can the American government keep all this secret when so many people are involved in working it out?!To answer that question, let’s review an actual, true, real-life occasion of just exactly this governmental top-secret militaristic research and development program.

Here’s a look at are some of the secret, lethal weapons the Nazis created during World War II:

The Horten Ho 229 bomber was designed to carry 2,000 pounds of armaments while flying at 49,000 feet at speeds north of 600 mph. Equipped with twin turbojet engines, two cannons, and R4M rockets, the Horten Ho 229 was the world’s first stealth aircraft and took its first flight in 1944…the bomber’s engineering did inspire today’s modern stealth aircraft — like the Northrop Gruman B-2 bomber.

Considered the “grandfather of smart bombs,” the Fritz X was a 3,450-pound explosive equipped with a radio receiver and sophisticated tail controls that helped guide the bomb to its target. According to the US Air Force, the Fritz X could penetrate 28 inches of armor and could be deployed from 20,000 feet, an altitude out of reach for antiaircraft equipment at the time. Less than a month after it was developed, the Nazis sank Italian battleship Roma off Sardinia in September 1943…

Known as the “Doodlebug” by US troops, the mini-tank was controlled with a joystick and powered by two electric motors, later replaced by gas burners. Goliath was designed to carry between 133 and 220 pounds of high explosives and was used to navigate minefields and deliver its explosive payload to defensive positions. The Nazis built more than 7,000 Goliaths during the war and paved the way for radio-controlled weapons.

By the late 1930s, the Germans were developing the Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet, a rocket-powered jet with speeds of up to 700 mph. “During this time the vaunted American P-51 Mustang fighter, in comparison, topped out at less than 440 mph,” according to Weapons of WWII magazine. More than 300 Komets were built and equipped with twin 30 mm cannons.

The German V-2 rocket was the world’s first large-scale liquid-propellant rocket vehicle,the first long-range ballistic missile, and the ancestor of today’s large rockets and launch vehicles. Over 10,000 concentration camp prisoners died in their creation. The rockets were 76 feet tall, streaked through the skies faster than the speed of sound to targets over 200 miles away carrying over a ton of explosives. More than 3,000 V-2 rockets delivered explosives that demolished European cities in the months before the end of the war.

German physicists were the first to split the atom in 1938 and begin developing the atomic bomb.

Despite desperate efforts by the British, American and Russians who sent covert teams of commandoes deep into German territory, the German weaponry remained secret until the end of the war.

From nerve and disease agents to the feared and coveted V-1 and V-2 rockets, Nazi scientists worked on an impressive arsenal... 

In the days and weeks after Germany’s surrender, American troops combed the European countryside in search of hidden caches of weaponry to collect. They came across facets of the Nazi war machine that the top brass were shocked to see, writer Annie Jacobsen told NPR’s All Things Considered in 2014. Jacobson wrote about both the mission and the scientists in her book, Operation Paperclip: The Secret Intelligence Program That Brought Nazi Scientists To America

They had no idea that Hitler was working on…suddenly the Pentagon realizing, ‘Wait a minute, we need these weapons for ourselves…’”

While the military did what they could to whitewash the pasts of their “prisoners of peace,” as some of the scientists called themselves, many had serious skeletons in their closets. For example, Wernher von Braun was not just one of the brains behind the V-2 rocket program, but had intimate knowledge of what was going on in the concentration camps. Von Braun himself hand-picked people from horrific places, including Buchenwald concentration camp, to work to the bone building his rockets, Jacobsen tells NPR.

Operation Paperclip was top secret at the time. After all, the devices these men helped design killed many people throughout Europe, not to mention the deaths their government was responsible for on the battlefield and in the concentration camps. Even agents with the Justice Department’s Office of Special Investigations, which the U.S. government tasked with hunting down top Nazi officers who went on the lam after the war, were unaware for decades of the extent to which government officials were collaborating with their quarry, Toby Harnden reported for The Telegraph in 2010.

While many of the men who were brought to the U.S. under the program were undoubtedly instrumental in scientific advancements like the Apollo program, they were also supportive and responsible for some of the horrors experienced by victims of the Holocaust. Operation Paperclip has certainly left a questionable legacy.

American and British organizations teamed up to scour occupied Germany for as much military, scientific and technological development research as they could uncover…

One enlightening discovery—recovered from a toilet at Bonn University—was the Osenberg List: a catalogue of scientists and engineers that had been put to work for the Third Reich.

In a covert affair…named Operation Paperclip, roughly 1,600 of these German scientists (along with their families) were brought to the United States to work on America’s behalf during the Cold War. The program was run by the newly-formed Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA), whose goal was to harness German intellectual resources to help develop America’s arsenal of rockets and other biological and chemical weapons, and to ensure such coveted information did not fall into the hands of the Soviet Union.

Still think the American government 1) couldn’t keep military secrets, 2) wouldn’t keep secrets from its democratic population?

For decades, the nuclear balance between the U.S. and Russia has depended on neither side having the capability to launch a successful first strike. If China is now trying to develop a first-strike capability, that balance would be in jeopardy.

[In an exclusive interview with CBS News, General John Hyten, vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the No. 2 person in the U.S. military]… told CBS News that in the last five years, China has carried out hundreds of hypersonic tests, while the U.S. has conducted just nine.  China has already deployed one medium-range hypersonic weapon, while the U.S. is still a few years from fielding its first one, according to Hyten.

China’s round-the-world hypersonic test…on July 27…has been compared to the moment in 1957…when Moscow launched the Sputnik satellite, becoming the first nation into space and catching the U.S. by surprise.  

China’s reported tests of a hypersonic orbital glide vehicle have sparked alarm in the U.S. as it could further fuel an escalating arms race.The Chinese government said this week that these were routine space test missions, not a demonstration of a new military weapon

What appears to be a new is the Chinese vehicle’s capability to maneuver after reentry in ways that have not been seen before…“and be more aggressive in terms of its cross range,” he said. “That would be new in terms of technology.”

If one is to believe the Chinese government’s explanation that this was just a reusable space vehicle technology demonstration, “in and of itself that would be a very significant demonstration, not trivial by any means…whether or not this was a weapon or a nuclear-warhead delivery system being tested is impossible to know without seeing the test data…

What all this means for the hypersonic arms race between the United States, Russia and China remains to be seen, Bakos said. The Pentagon has warned for years that China has developed hypersonic glide vehicles to arm its short-range ballistic missiles. A more advanced vehicle would be concerning, he said. “It’s the element of surprise that becomes destabilizing, unfortunately.”

In anticipation of China and Russia deploying hypersonic missiles, the Pentagon is developing a network of space sensors in low Earth orbit to fill blind spots in the current U.S. antimissile defense system. DoD concluded that only sensors in low orbits can spot maneuvering missile threats accurately and early enough so they can be shot down.

That sure sounds like Hubble is the original space-based military telescope.

The Real Story of Apollo 17 And Why We Never Went Back

Why we went to space

…In the aftermath of the Second World War, the United States and Soviet Union became embroiled in a competitive arms race that saw significant military gains on both sides, eventually culminating in the development of rockets capable of striking enemy territory across the world. The next step for arms superiority jumped from 1) the atmosphere to 2) Low Earth Orbit to 3) the Moon, the ultimate high ground…

The development of space travel didn’t occur in a political vacuum: the drive for the United States to develop rockets and vehicles which could travel higher and faster than their Soviet counterparts happened alongside increasing US/USSR tensions, especially as geopolitical crises such the Cuban Missile Crisis and the US deployment of missiles to Turkey demonstrated how ready each country was to annihilating the other.

The red hot environment of the Cold War allowed for significant political capital and governmental spending which supported a first-strike infrastructure…

By 1966, the space race peaked: NASA received its highest budget ever…By this point, the social and political infrastructure and support for space had begun to wane…

The urgency which fueled the Cold War arms race had begun to cool, and along with it, the support for much of the efforts required to bring people into space and to the Moon...

Other major concerns have redirected US attentions from spaceflight: the United States’ War on Terror, which is expected to cost US taxpayers over $5 trillion dollars in the long run.

A high school teacher shouldn’t accept this argument in a 10th grader’s essay.

  • We went to the moon in the 1960’s because of the War…
  • We aren’t going to the moon now because of the War…

That illogic is so ludicrous that it provides a clue to what is so urgent in the mind of the speaker that he can’t help spitting it out.

The War. The evidence very strongly supports the conclusion that the Space Race was absolutely and foremost an Arms Race.

Here’s a thought. What if, just what if the initial discovery and battering of the Van Allen Belts at the beginning of the whole Space Race was an frenzied effort to be the first empire, not to reach the moon, but to create a passage through the radiation shielding Earth for space aliens who promised to raise the winner to heights of power never before dreamed of in all of human history?

Think I’m really and truly crazy now?

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For the often-ridiculed followers of ufology, the study of unidentified flying objects, there was a sense of validation when the celebrated physicist and author Michio Kaku took a break from his work on string field theory to address the Ufology World Congress here last weekend…

he noted, the universe is 13.8 billion years old, while earthly science was born merely 300 years ago; on any of 4,000 recently discovered exoplanets, where life as we know it might be able to exist, alien civilizations may well have had much longer to advance their scientific and technological skills.

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